COMMENTARY AND ANALYSIS Issue-01 July to September 2010 Index Page
Full version of the report

Indian army’s role in Kashmir’s Intifada



The death of a teenager, Tufail Mattoo, on 11 June 2010 after being hit by a tear gas shell near Rajouri Kadal area in Srinagar triggered unprecedented violent street protests in the Kashmir Valley.[1] From 11 June 2010 to September 2010, at least 109 persons (list attached), including children and women, lost their lives and many sustained injuries in firing by security forces. Scores of security personnel too were injured in stone pelting by the protestors.

The question remains as to who were responsible for the unprecedented uprising.

The contribution of the Indian army

As an all party delegation left Kashmir on 22 September 2010, Minister of State for Defence, M. Pallam Raju asserted that “The Indian Army is not responsible for the turmoil in the Kashmir Valley”.[2] 

The chronology of the protests shows that the security forces including the Indian army actively contributed to the rise of the Intifada. The death of teenager Tufail Matto only accentuated the street violence which had been continuing from the beginning of the year. During February and March 2010, the security forces conducted at least 74 cordon and search operations in Sopore town alone, the highest number conducted in the Valley, according to the J&K Police.[3]

In 2010, the first major protest started against the alleged atrocities by the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) in Sopore in retaliation against the killing of four of its personnel during a militant attack on 30 December 2009.[4] After the death of four personnel, the CRPF personnel of the 177th Battalion allegedly beat up people as they carried large scale search and frisking operation in the Warpora area of Sopore and the residents were allegedly asked to reveal the identity and location of the militants that carried out the attack.[5] About two dozen persons, including policemen, were injured in clashes between police and protesters in Baramulla and Sopore districts.[6]

However, the protests intensified after the killing of a civilian identified as Mushtaq Ahmad Mir (32 years) on the night of 23 January 2010. He was allegedly killed by the 44thRashtriya Rifles and the Special Operation Group during a security operation at his house in Kalampora-Shadimarg in Pulwama district. The joint column cordoned off the house and asked the inmates to come out as they had information that two militants were hiding in the house. The army claimed that the deceased was killed in firing by the militants. However, the deceased family members alleged that when the inmates came out of the house as directed by troops, the deceased was given a torch and asked to search the house. As the deceased entered the house, the troops allegedly opened fire, killing him on the spot in the corridor of the house. The deceased’s family members started to cry but the troops allegedly beat them up. No militant was captured or killed. The army claimed that the militants escaped from the

nallah side. On the next day, hundreds of people protested and clashed with the police demanding arrest of the guilty.[7]

On 5 March 2010, a joint team of 30thRashtriya Rifles and Special Operations Group (SOG) of police cordoned off Malpora locality in Kralgund area of Handwara and conducted house-to-house searches for several hours. The villagers alleged that when the security forces failed to find out any militant, they misbehaved with women and tortured four innocent youth identified as Farooq Ahmad (son of Habib-Ullah Bhat), Nazir Ahmad (son of Mohammad Maqbool), Bashir Ahmad (son of Khazir Mohammad Bhat) and Abdur Rashid (son of Abdul Gaffar Bhat). Huge protest demonstrations were held in Handwara area against the alleged excesses by the joint team.[8]

Again protest started following the killing of Habibullah Khan (70 years), a begger, by 6th Rastriya Rifles in an alleged fake encounter at Rainawari forest under Handwara police station in Kupwara district on 14 April 2010. The army authorities claimed that the deceased was a militant and killed during an encounter. Unbelievably, the army also claimed to have recovered a weapon from the 70-year-old frail man after the encounter. However, a relative alleged that Habibullah was picked up and killed in a fake encounter. The post-mortem report revealed that the deceased was shot from a close range.[9]

Protests started following the killing of a civilian identified as Ghulam Ahmad Kalis (50 years) on 24 April 2010 when the army opened fire suspecting him as militant at Chewan-Kellar in Shopian. The army claimed to have laid an ambush at Chewan village and opened fire when they saw movement of three men riding horses. Later, thousands of people protested against the killing and damaged two vehicles of the army. However, the army allegedly resorted to firing at the protestors and injured four persons. The protestors alleged that the army opened fire without warning and killed the civilian without any provocation. The police registered a murder case against the army and ordered a probe.[10]

Even before the protests against the killing of Habibullah Khan and Ghulam Ahmad Kalis died down, the army allegedly killed three more youth in an alleged fake encounter in the Machil Sector in frontier district of Kupwara in North Kashmir on 30 April 2010.[11] The three youth were identified as Muhammad Shafi (19 years), Shezad Ahmad (25 years) and Riyaz Ahmad (19 years) were killed by the 4th  Rajputana Rifles. The army claimed to have killed three terrorists while they were attempting to cross the Line of Control (LoC) in the wee hours and seized five AK rifles and a pistol after the gunfight. The three deceased actually went missing from Nadihal Rafiabad in Baramulla district on 27 April 2010. On 10 May 2010, the families of the three youth filed a missing persons report in Panzla police station under Sopore district and later they identified the bodies of the deceased. The deceased were shot in the head from point blank range. According to the police, Bashir Ahmad Lone, a former Special Police Officer (SPO) during interrogation revealed that Territorial Army jawan Abbas Shah of Kamal Kote in Uri and former SPO Abdul Hamid Bhat had arranged for staging the encounter. Bashir Ahmad Lone had

approached the youth promising them jobs of porters with the army at the LoC, but handed them over to Abbas Shah who handed them over to an army camp at Kalaroos in Kupwara district.[12]

As the protests against the Machil killing were continuing, the killing of Ghulam Ahmad Kumar (son of Muhammad Subhan Kumar of Takia Rafiabad), an employee in Public Health Engineering on 6 May 2010 added fuel to the fire. Kumar was allegedly killed by the 30th Rashtriya Rifles after being used as a human shield during an encounter at Rafiabad. Hundreds of people protested against the killing. The protestors alleged that the deceased was picked up by the 30th Rastriya Rifles prior to the gun battle in the Rafiabad while he was on duty for night shift and taken to the place where the gunfight broke out. At least 12 persons were injured in the police action.[12]

Although the Army suspended Major Upinder and removed Colonel D.K. Pathania, Commanding Officer (CO) of the 4 Rajput Regiment on 6 June 2010 in connection with the alleged fake encounter killing of three youths in Machil in Kupwara district on 30 April 2010,[13] the protests continued. The killing of teenager Tufail Mattoo, who was passing by during a protest demonstration against the Machil encounter, triggered increased street protests.{14]

Since then, hardly a day passed without protests and reports of killing in execessive use of fire arms. As many as 48 persons, including minors and women, have died[15] till Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh was forced to intervene and convene a meeting of all political parties of Jammu and Kashmir to solve the crisis on 10 August 2010. In his address, the Prime Minister stated that the key to the resolution of the Kashmir problem is “a political solution that addresses the alienation and emotional needs of the people” of the state.[16] India was forced to send an All Party Delegation to visit Jammu and Kashmir.

Why does the Indian army contribute to uprising?

When the Ministry of External Affairs announced on 11 May 2010 that Foreign Minister Mr S M Krishna would visit Pakistan on 15 July 2010, protests were expected to keep Kashmir dispute relevant.

The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) stated that there were reliable reports that anti-national elements were trying to exploit the situation and some militants might have sneaked into the Valley to trigger violence.[17]

Even if the MHA claims were true, there is no doubt that the Indian army through human rights violations only provided the opportunity to trigger the protests.

The protests by the civilians will continue to erupt so long the security forces continue to violate human rights and are provided impunity for the same. The state government of Jammu and Kashmir has

been awaiting sanctions from the Ministry of Defence to prosecute 38 army personnel who were found guilty in human rights abuses after investigation since 2005. In March 2010, Defence Minister A. K. Antony informed the Rajya Sabha no permission was given to prosecute any of these 38 army personnel[18] failed to state as to why the permission was not granted.

For the victims and relatives of human rights violations in Jammu and Kashmir, protest remains the only option in the absence of justice. Unfortunately, protest too often suppressed with more violations including killing. It is time for New Delhi to realise that justice is not equivalent of Rs. 5 lakhs per person killed as announced for those killed since 11 June 2010.[19]

List of 109 persons killed/died during the protests in Jammu and Kashmir from 11 June – 15 October 2010 as collated by Asian Centre for Human Rights:

01.     Toufail Ahmed Matto (17), R/o Saida Kadal, Srinagar[20], 11 June
02.     Javed Ahmad Malla (18), R/o Noorbagh[21], Noorbagh, 20 June
03.     Shakeel Ahmad Ganai (14), R/o Lalad, Sopore[25], 25 June 
04.     Firdous Ahmad Kakroo (17), R/o Ningli, Sopore,[23] , 25 June
05.     Tajamul Ahmad Bhat[24] near Sangrama, 28 June
06.     Asif Hasan Rather (9)[25] Delina locality of Baramulla, 28 June
07.     Bilal Ahmad Waniu[26] Sopore, 27 June
08.     Ishtiyaq Ahmad Khanday (15)[27] Anantanag, 29 June
09.     Imtiyaz Ahmad Ittoo (17)[28] Anantanag, 29 June
10.     Shujatul Islam (17)[29] Anantanag, 29 June
11.     Irshad Ahmad Bhat[30]Anantanag, 29 June
12.     Muzaffar Ahmad Bhat (17)[31] Batamaloo, 5 July
13.     Fayaz Ahmad Wani[32] Batamaloo, 6 July
14.     25-year-old woman, Fancy[33] Batamaloo, 6 July
15.     Abrar Ahmad Bhat (17)[34] Maisuma area, Batamaloo, 6 July
16.     Faizan Buhroo (10)[35], Baramulla, 19 July 
17.     Fayaz Ahmed Khanday of Kreeri[36] Baramulla, 19 July
18.     Tariq Ahmed Dar[37] Pazala police station, 25 July
19.     Showkat Ahmad[38] Sopore - Baramulla district, 30 July
20.     Mohammad Ahsan[39] Sopore - Baramulla district, 30 July
21.     Rafiq Ahmad[40] Pattan, Baramulla district, 30 July
22.     Mohammad Siddiq[41] Baramulla district, 30 July
23.     Javaid Ahmed Teli (20)[42] Baramulla district 31 July
24.     Mudassir Ahmad  Mir (17)[43] Bandipore district, 31 July
25.     Afrosa (Female)[44] Khrew, 1 August
26.     Nayeem Ahmad Shah[45] Awantiopora, 1 August
27.     Raees[46] Awantiopora, 1 August
28.     Tanveer Ahmed[47] Pampore, 1 August
29.     Mohammad Yaqoob Bhat[48] Pulwama district, 2 August
30.     Bashir Ahmad Ganai[49] Sangam, 2 August
31.     Ashiq Hussain[50] Chawalgam in Kulgam district, 2 August
32.     Tariq Ahmad[51] Beijbehara, 2 August
33.     Khursheed Ahmad Wagay[52] Kralpora, 2 August
34.     Youth[53] Kupwara, 2 August
35.     Arshid Ahmed Bhat S/o Muhammad Abdullah[54] Anantnag,  2 August
36.     7-year-old Sameer[55] Batamaloo, Srinagar, 2 August
37.     Riyaz Ahmad Bhat (25)[56] Khrew in Pulwama district, 3 August
38.     Anees Ahmad Ganai (16), R/o Dangerpora Narwah[57] Narwara, 3 August
39.     Meraj-ud-Din Lone (19)[58] Barthana Qamarwari, 3 August
40.     Suhail Ahmad Dar (16), S/o Mohammad Yasin Dar of Zainakote[59] Srinagar, 3 August
41.     Jehangir Ahmad Bhat (23) S/o Muhammad Yusuf Bhat, Chungam Yaripora Frisal, Kulgam district[60], 3 August
42.     Iqbal Ahmad Khan[61] Chhanapora, 4 August
43.     Shabir Ahmad Malik (27) S/o Abdul Aziz Malik, R/o Lonepora Pulwama[62] South Kashmir’s Pulwama district, 5 August
44.     Ghulam Nabi Badyari (50)[63] Ganpatyar, Habbakadal area, 5 August
45.     Mohammad Yaqoob[64] Bemina area, 4 August
46.     Rameez Reshi (18)[65] Warpora near Sopore in Baramulla district, 7 August
47.     Fida Nabi (17)[66], Shalteng area, Srinagar, 8 August
48.     Muhammad Ashraf Lone S/o Ghulam Rasool Lone[67] R/o Alachizab Kupwara, 9 August
49.     Syed Fark Bukhari (19) R/o Fark[68] Baramulla district, 10 August
50.     Kiran Bala (35) W/o Sat Pal, R/o Muthi (Jammu)[69] Rajouri district, 11 August
51.     Mudassir Ahmad Zargar (17), R/o Kupwara[70] Kupwara, 13 August
52.     Mohammad Arif Mir (19)[71] Bomai, near Sopore, 13 August
53.     Sumeer Ahmad Lone (18)[72] Bomai, near Sopore, 13 August
54.     Ali Mohammad Khanday (65)[73] Pattan in Baramulla district, 13 August
55.     Ishtiaq Ahmad Latoo[74] Lazbal locality of Anantnag, 14 August
56.     Muhammad Omar Dar (15) R/o of Narbal[75] Budgam district, 14 August
57.     One person was killed[76], South Kashmir town of Anantnag, 14 August
58.     Mohammad Abbas Dhobi (35) of Mattan Anantnag[78], 17 August
59.     Mohammad Yusuf Khan(70)[79] Bemina, 17 August
60.     Milad Ahmad Dar (8), S/o Muhammad Amin Dar  R/o Khudwani[79], 19 August
61.     Mudassir Ahmad (18), S/o Nazir Ahmad Hajam,[81] Hajjam Mohalla, Sopore, Baramulla, 20 August
62.     Nazir Ahmad Wani (27), S/o Abdul Rehman Wani, R/o Persha Mohalla, Bijbehara[82], Anantnag, 20 August
63.     Bilal Ahmad Sheikh (22)[83], Singhpora-Pattan, 23 August
64.     Umar Qayoom(17) R/o Anchar Soura locality[84]          Soura, 25 August
65.     Irshad Ahmad Parray (11), S/o Muhammad Ashraf Parray R/o Old Iddgah,[85] Anantnag,  30 August
66.     Mohammad Rafi (19) S/o Nazir Ahmed Mochi, Doda, 2 September
67.     Feroze Ahmad Malik, (16), Batpora of Palhallan,[86] SDH Pattan, 6 September
68.     Noor-u-Din Tantray[87], S.K. Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Soura, 6 September
69.     Mohammad Ramzan Mir (45)[88], S.K. Institute of Medical Sciences, Soura 6 September
70.     Mudasir Ahmad (22)[89] succumbed to his injuries on way to hospital, 6 September
71.     Ghulam Mohammad Guroo(55),[90] Tengpora Bypass,  SKIMS, 9 September
72.     Manzoor Ahmad Piswal (34), S/o Ghulam Nabi Piswal[91] Bandipora sub-district 9 September
73.     Mohammad Ashraf Mir, R/o Palhalan Pattan (34)[92] 12 September
74.     Nisar Ahmed Bhat[93] Ajas village of Bandipora district, 13 September
75-80.   (6 persons) Afaq Ahmad Khan, Mohammad Iqbal Malik, Tariq Ahmad, Mudasir Ahmad and Abdul Qayoom. The identity of the sixth was not immediately established[94]
81-84.   (4 persons) Riyaz Ahmad Sheikh, S/o Ghulam Mohammad Sheikh, Muzaffar Ahmad Mir and Ajaz Ahmad Wagay[95],  Tangmarg area of Baramulla district, 13 September
85-87.   (3 persons) two in Anantnag, one in Sopore and one at Ajas[96] two in Anantnag, one in Sopore and one at Ajas, 13 September
88.     Aqib Ahmad Wagay(14)[97], Gulshanabad Sarnal, Anantnag , 13 September
89.     Raju Nath, S/o Mohammad Maqbool Nath, R/o Nathpora Khanabal[98],  13 September
90.     Ghulam Rasool Tantary[99],  Gogoo, Budgam district, 13 September
91.     Mohammad Shameem (27), S/o Mohammad Majid, R/o (Mendhar),[100] Poonch, 15 September
92.     Alam Daat (30), S/o Sadaq Hussain of Gholad (Mendhar)[101], Poonch, 15 September
93.     Mohammad Irshad (18), S/o Mohammad Azam of Ari (Mendhar),[102] Poonch, 15 September
94.     Sheikh Yasir[103], firing at Maisuma on August 30, who succumbed to his injuries in a Delhi hospital, 16 September
95.     Imtiaz Ahmad Malla[104], Surpura, Beerwah pocket of Budgam, 17 September
96.     Fayez Ahmad Dar (22), S/o Ghulam Rasool Dar105, Surpura in Beerwah pocket of Budgam, 17 September
97.     Ghulam Rasool Bhat (21) S/o Ghulam Mohammad Bhat, R/o Tappar Pattan,[106] Tapper in Pattan Tehsil of Baramulla district, 17 September
98.     Ansarullah Tantray (24)[107], Palhallan (Pattan), 18 September
99.     Ali Muhammad Waza (30),[108] Palhallan (Pattan), 18 September
100.   Fayaz Ahmad Naiko, R/o Bemina[109], Palhallan Pattan, 18 September
101.   Maroof Ahmad(14)[110], Palhallan Pattan, 18 September
102.   Noor-Ul-Amin Dagga, S/o Muhammad Amin Dagga of Naibasti[111], Anantnag, 18 September
103.   Mohammad Amin Ganai (26)[112], Baramulla district, 18 September
104.   Shabir Ahmad Dar(25), R/o Lider Mund, Pulwama[113]Anantnag, 18 September
105.   Bilal Ahamd Najjar, S/o Ghulam Mohiudin Najjar, R/o Khanabal -Anantnag[114], 18 September
106.    Mobina(25)[115], Nathipora-Bomai Sopore, 19 September
107.   Maroof Ahmad Nath (Rajoo)[116], SMHS Hospital, 19 September
108.   Mohammad Omar (16), S/o Mohammad Ismael Sheikh[117] Potkhah Muqam in Sangrama, 2 October
109.  Ghulam Nabi Mir (55)[118], Pampore resident, Soura (SKIMS), 15 October 2010



Endnotes:

1 . Woman killed in Sopore firing, The Tribune, 20 September 2010

2 . Curfew, no relaxation: Kashmir turned into fortress - Woman killed at Nathipora firing, 3 succumb to injuries: Toll 108, The Kashmir Times, 20 September 2010

3 . Toll 110: One more loses battle for life, The Kashmir Times, 2 October 2010

4 . 18 killed in fresh Kashmir flare up: Toll 90 - 150 injured in police, forces firing: Violent protests continue despite indefinite curfew, shoot-at-sight orders, The Kashmir Times, 14 September 2010

5 . Ibid

6 . Ibid

7 . Kashmir, Punjab flare up over holy book sacrilege rumours - No let-up in Valley unrest, 17 dead, The Kashmir Times, 14 September 2010

8 . Curfew continues in Poonch for 3rd day - 3 killed, 18 injured in Mendhar police firing, The Kashmir Times, 16 September 2010

9 . Ibid

10 . Ibid

11 . 3 more killed in army, police, forces’ firing: Toll 95 -  Indefinite curfew continues for 6th day: Army deployed in rural Kashmir to enforce curfew restrictions, The Kashmir Times, 18 September 2010

12 . Ibid

13 . Ibid

14 . One killed, 11 injured in Tapper Payeen, The Kashmir Times, 18 September 2010

15 . Palhallan: A victim of Govt ire - After 8 Killings Curfewed For 23 Days, The Greater Kashmir, 6 October 2010

16 . Ibid

17 . Valley body count tops 100 in 3 mths of street rage, The Times of India, 20 September 2010

18 . Curfew, no relaxation: Kashmir turned into fortress - Woman killed at Nathipora firing, 3 succumb to injuries: Toll 108, The Kashmir Times, 20 September 2010

19 . 3 more killed, toll 104 - Islamabad Youth’s Body Fished Out; Bemina Youth Succumbs; Curfew Relaxed, The Greater Kashmir, 19 September 2010

20 . Woman killed in Sopore firing, The Tribune, 20 September 2010

21 . Curfew, no relaxation: Kashmir turned into fortress - Woman killed at Nathipora firing, 3 succumb to injuries: Toll 108, The Kashmir Times, 20 September 2010

22 . Ibid

23 . 8-year boy dead: Toll 60, three critical - City and towns rocked by protests, clashes on bandh day, The Kashmir Times, 20 August 2010

24 . 2 more shot dead, 200 injured as protests rage - No relaxation in curfew restrictions in 8 major towns of Kashmir, The Kashmir Times, 21 August 2010

25 . Ibid

26 . 13 injured in firing at Soura, Prechoo - 62 injured in clashes amid curfew - Another youth dies, toll touches 63, The Kashmir Times, 24 August 2010

27 . Clashes in Srinagar, curfew reimposed, The Tribune, 26 August 2010

28 . Police firing at Maisuma, Yasin’s relative critically injured - 11-yr old boy killed in Anantnag: Toll 65, The Kashmir Times, 31 August 2010

29 . Harassed by cops, man ends life  in Doda, The Kashmir Times, 3 September 2010

30 . J-K: Four killed in police firing in Palhalan, The Indian Express, 7 September 2010

31 . Ibid

32 . Ibid

33 . Tension mounts in Valley again, - Geelani placed under house arrest  - 4 killed in Palhalan firing by police, forces, The Kashmir Times, 7 September 2010

34 . Toll 70: Army ‘kills’ civilian, injured dies, The Kashmir Times, 10 September 2010

35 . Ibid

36 . Peerzada’s house attacked, firing, tear gassing, Palhalan victim dies - Indefinite curfew brutally enforced: Toll 71, The Kashmir Times, 13 September 2010

37 . Another youth killed in Kashmir, toll now 71, The Asian Age, 14 September 2010

38 . 18 killed in fresh Kashmir flare up: Toll 90 - 150 injured in police, forces firing: Violent protests continue despite indefinite curfew, shoot-at-sight orders, The Kashmir Times, 14 September 2010

39 . 4 killed, 110 injured in Anantnag firing -  Funeral procession fired upon by SOG men, The Kashmir Times, 14 September 2010

40 . Ibid

41 . Ibid

42 . Shoot at sight orders, yet thousands defy curfew - 5 killed in fresh firing, 150 injured in clashes in Kashmir, The Kashmir Times, 4 August 2010

43 . Two killed, several hurt in fresh violence, The Tribune, 5 August 2010

44 . One killed in Pulwama police firing, The Tribune, 6 August 2010

45 . Ibid

46 . Ibid

47 . Curfew relaxed in parts of Valley, The Tribune, 8 August 2010

48 . Bandh, curfew in parts of Srinagar, The Tribune, 10 August 2010

49 . Missing youth’s body found, protests in Kupwara, The Kashmir Times, 10 August 2010

50 . Finally Fark fished out near Kreeri police post, The Kashmir Times, 11 August 2010

51 . Militants ambush Army convoy in Rajouri - Woman killed as bus caught in crossfire, The Tribune, 12 August 2010

52 . Violence in valley - 4 deaths shatter brief lull, The Tribune, 14 August 2010

53 . Ibid

54 . Ibid

55 . Ibid

56 . 1 killed in fresh Valley clashes, The Tribune, 15 August 2010

57 . No end to killings, 2 shot dead by forces in Kashmir - Amid curfew massive protests continue, 80 injured in clashes, The Kashmir Times, 15 August 2010

58 . Ibid

59 . No hartal day but protests,- clashes on; over 50 injured- One dies, firing on protestors continues, The Kashmir Times, 18 August 2010

60 . Ibid

61 . Boy killed in Baramulla police firing - Shutdown in Srinagar on separatists’ call, The Tribune, 20 July 2010

62 . Ibid

63 . Youth’s death in police custody alleged, The Tribune, 27 July 2010

64 . Three killed, 80 hurt in Kashmir clashes, The Tribune, 31 July 2010

65 . Ibid

66 . Ibid

67 . Valley on the boil, curfew clamped in all towns - Two dead, over 39 injured in fresh clashes, The Tribune, 1 August 2010

68 . Ibid

69 . Ibid

70 . Ibid

71 . Ibid

72 . Ibid

73 . Valley bleeds as eight die in fresh clashes; over 60 hurt - Curfew restrictions defied in many areas, The Tribune, 2 August 2010

74 . Seven killed, 76 hurt in fresh violence, The Tribune, 3 August 2010

75 . Ibid

76 . Ibid

77 . Ibid

78 . Ibid

79 . Ibid

80 . Ibid

81 . Valley’s children taking part in protests on large scale, The Kashmir Times, 22 August 2010

82 . Seven killed, 76 hurt in fresh violence, The Tribune, 3 August 2010

83 . Ibid

84 . HR abuse cases against army personnel, The Kashmir Times, 11 March 2010

85 . Press Release, 25 September 2010, Ministry of Home Affairs, available at: http://pib.nic.in/release/release.asp?relid=65989&kwd=

86 . Youth dies in stone throwing: Police - Locals say he died after being hit by bullet, Tribune, 12 June 2010

87 . Srinagar on the boil as youth is killed in police firing, The Hindu, 21 June 2010

88 . 2 Youth killed in Crpf firing - Massive Protests Rock Sopur, Curfew Imposed,  Greater Kashmir, 26 June 2010

89 . Ibid

90 . 2 more killed in Valley clashes, The Tribune, 29 June 2010

91 . Tension as 2 more die in CRPF firing, The Hindu, 29 June 2010

92 . Chidambaram to visit state on Thursday  - Says Centre committed to maintaining peace, The Tribune, 29 June 2010

93 . Protests spread to south Kashmir, 3 teens killed in firing in Anantnag, The Indian Express, 30 June 2010

94 . Ibid

95 . Ibid

96 . Violence spreads in Valley - 3 more killed in Anantnag, The Tribune, 30 June 2010

97 . Valley on boil, 4 dead in 24 hours - Army deployed as curfew reimposed in Srinagar after clashes, The Tribune, 7 July 2010

98 . Ibid

99 . Ibid

100 . Ibid

101 . Ibid

102 . Civilian killed by troops, protests in Rafiabad -  Firing in air, tear gassing, clashes; DC orders inquiry, The Kashmir Times, 9 May 2010

103 . Army suspends major, removes colonel over ‘fake’ Kashmir encounter, The Hindustan Times, 6 June 2010

104 . Kashmir teen died after firearm injury, says autopsy report, The Indian Express, 19 June 2010

105 . Data available with Asian Centre for Human Rights

106 . Kashmir needs political solution: PM, The Times of India, 10 August 2010

107 . Terrorists stoking Kashmir violence, The Pioneer, 30 June 2010

108 . Victims allegedly used as human shield - Protests in Pulwama after youth’s killing, The Kashmir Times, 25 January 2010

109 . Demonstrations in Handwara, The Kashmir Times, 6 March 2010

110 . Beggar killed in fake encounter in J&K, NDTV, 17 April 2010

111 . Murder case against army, protestors torch 2 security vehicles in Shopian - Army kills civilian, opens fire on protestors; 4 injured, The Kashmir Times, 25 April 2010

112 . Fake encounter sparks uproar in Kashmir, India Today,30 May 2010

113 . Report Card of Ministry of Home Affairs for August, 2010, Ministry of Home Affairs

114 . Divided team leaves Kashmir - Lawmakers hold separate meetings, The Telegraph, 22 Septmeber 2010

115 . 74 security operations in 2 months in Sopore, The Kashmir Times, 8 April 2010

116 . Sporadic clashes in valley, 7 hurt, The Tribune, 2 January 2010

117 . Sopore attack aftermath - CRPF Troopers ‘commit atrocities’, The Kashmir, 1 January 2010

118 . 2 dozen injured in clashes in Baramulla, Sopore, The Kashmir Times, 2 January 2010

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