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The Naxals get lethal

Chhattisgarh continues to be the epicenter of the conflict

(Vol-II, Issue-III)
Embargoed for: 03 October 2007

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Table of contents

1. Overview: The Naxals get more lethal. 2
2. Analysis of the Naxal conflict during July-September 2007. 4
I. Human rights violations by the security forces. 4
II. Violations of international humanitarian laws by the Naxalites. 7
a. Ban on farming and killing of the tribal farmers 8
b. Killing of the alleged “police informers”. 9
c. Killing of the political activists 9
d. Summary punishment through Jan Adalat 10
e. Destruction of public properties 11
3. State responses. 12
a. Union Government. 12
b. State Governments. 12
Andhra Pradesh: 13
Bihar: 14
Chhattisgarh: 14
Karnataka: 15
Orissa: 15


1. Overview: The Naxals get more lethal

The Naxals are increasingly getting more lethal. The powerful landmine blast targeting former Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister N Janardhan Reddy and his wife N Rajyalakshmi, a minister in the Andhra Pradesh government, near Chitwedu village in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh on 7 September 2007, [1] killing of 24 security personnel including 16 Central Reserve Police Force personnel on 10 July 2007 in the dense forests of Elampatti-Regadgatta in Dantewada district of Chhattisgarh [2] and the killing of 15 security personnel, including an Inspector, three jawans of Chhattisgarh Armed Force and eight Special Police Officers, in an ambush near Taadmetla under Dornapal police station in Dantewada district of Chhattisgarh on 29 August 2007 [3] are testimonies to the increasing lethal power of the Naxals.

Chhattisgarh continues to be the epicenter of the Naxalite conflict as a direct consequence of the counter-insurgency Salwa Judum campaign.  According to the estimate of the Asian centre for Human Rights (ACHR), at least 384 persons have been killed in the Naxalite conflict during January to September 2007. These included 129 civilians, 162 security force personnels and 93 alleged Naxalites. The highest number of killings have been reported from Chhattisgarh (208) which constitutes 54% of the total killings, followed by Andhra Pradesh (59), Jharkhand (44) and Bihar (28). 

There have been credible reports of serious human rights violations by the security forces while combating the Naxalites. Though security forces identify all those killed by them as Naxalites”, there have been allegations of fake encounter killings. On 16 July 2007, representatives of various political parties and civil society groups including Congress, Communist Party of India, Dalit Sangarsh Samiti, Karnataka Rajya Raitha Sangha, All India Trade Union Congress and Indian National Trade Union Congress stated that the five alleged Maoists who were killed by the security forces near Menasinahadya village under Narasimharajapura police station in Chikmagalur district of Karnataka on 10 July 2007 were innocent.  These political parties and civil society groups demanded a judicial inquiry. [4]

The Andhra Pradesh Police Personnel were allegedly responsible for the rape of 11 tribal women during anti-Naxalite operations at Vakapalli village under Nurmati panchayat in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh on 20 August 2007. [5] No identification parade of the suspects was conducted though the victims stated that they could identify the culprits. The National Human Rights Commission also intervened into the matter.

The Naxalites were also responsible for gross violations of international humanitarian laws including torture and mutilation, hostage taking and killings after trials in Kangaroo courts, the Jan Adalats. Alleged police informers and political party activists were the primary targets. At least eight persons were killed after trial in socalled Jan Adalats from July to September 2007. 

On 1 July 2007, Shambhu Shah and Meghu Ram were beaten to death by the Naxalites in the presence of the villagers after theJan Adalat (People's Court) sentenced them to death on the charge of being police informers at Sisahani village under Pakri Dayal police station of East Champaran district of Bihar. Another villager Laxmi Shah was critically injured and was admitted at Motihari Sadar Hospital. [6]

The response of the governments basically remained the same. After the meeting of the National Security Council on 2 August 2007, the Central government

selected eight districts - two each in Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Orissa - for launching a “strong anti-Naxalite action”. [7]   The plans are reportedly being chalked out.

Table 1: Killings in Naxal conflict, January-September 2007 

States

Civilians

Security forces

Alleged Naxalites

Total

Andhra Pradesh

21

2

36

59

Bihar

13

15

0

28

Chhattisgarh

46

134

28

208

Jharkhand

28

7

9

44

Karnataka

1

1

6

8

Maharashtra

4

0

3

7

Madhya Pradesh

0

0

1

1

Orissa

11

3

9

23

Uttar Pradesh

0

0

1

1

West Bengal

5

0

0

5

Total

129

162

93

384


 

2. Analysis of the Naxal conflict during July-September 2007

During July-September 2007, at least 135 persons [8] were killed including 60 civilians, 49 security forces and 26 alleged Naxalites. The highest number of killing was reported from Chhattisgarh (67), followed by Andhra Pradesh (20), Bihar (16), Jharkhand (15), Karnataka (7), Orissa (7), West Bengal (2) and Maharashtra (1). 

Table 2: Killings in Naxal conflict, July – September 2007

States

Civilians

Security forces

Alleged Naxalites

Total

Andhra Pradesh

8

0

12

20

Bihar

9

7

0

16

Chhattisgarh

21

41

5

67

Jharkhand

15

0

0

15

Karnataka

0

1

6

7

Maharashtra

1

0

0

1

Madhya Pradesh

0

0

0

0

Orissa

4

0

3

7

Uttar Pradesh

0

0

0

0

West Bengal

2

0

0

2

Total

60

49

26

135

I. Human rights violations by the security forces

The security forces seldom claimed to have killed innocent civilians. Those killed by the security forces were often identified as Naxalites. The security forces claimed to have killed at least 26 alleged Naxalites during JulySeptember 2007.

Table 3: Killings by the security forces

States

Civilians

Alleged Naxalites

Total

Andhra Pradesh

0

12

12

Bihar

0

0

0

Chhattisgarh

0

5

5

Jharkhand

0

0

0

Karnataka

0

6

6

Maharashtra

0

0

0

Madhya Pradesh

0

0

0

Orissa

0

3

3

Uttar Pradesh

0

0

0

West Bengal

0

0

0

Total

0

26

26

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There have been allegations of fake encounter killings.

On 1 July 2007, a Maoist top leader Chettiraja Papaiah alias Somanna, secretariat member of the North Telangana Special Zonal Committee (NTSZC), was killed in an alleged encounter with the police in Medaram forest area in Tadvai Mandal of Warangal district. The police claimed to have recovered one AK 47 rifle, a carbine, a pistol and four kitbags from the encounter site. [9] However, in a statement released to the media on 2 July 2007, the Maoists alleged that police arrested Somanna on 30 June 2007 and killed him in a fake encounter on the next day. [10] Revolutionary poet P Vara Vara Rao alleged that the police had violated the National Human Rights Commission's guidelines by conducting the post-mortem on the body of Somanna in a hurried manner, without the presence of forensic experts at Eturnagaram Primary Health Centre on the morning of 2 July 2007. Following a petition filed by Mr Vara Vara Rao, on 2 July 2007 the First Additional District Judge K V Kishan Rao ordered for a re-postmortem of Somanna's body at MGM Hospital in Warangal. [11] The re-post mortem was conducted at the MGM Hospital on 3 July 2007 by a group of forensic experts in the presence of the deceased's relatives, Mr Varavara Rao and the Fifth Additional Judge P. Mohan Rao. The entire process was videographed. [12]

On 10 July 2007, five alleged Maoists identified as member of Karnataka State Committee of the CPI-Maoists, Gowtham (35), Paramesh (30), Subramanya (25), Rame Gowda (50) and Gowda's wife Kaveri (40) were killed in an alleged encounter with the combined team of the State police and the Anti-Naxalite Force near Menasinahadya village under Narasimharajapura police station in Chikmagalur district of Karnataka. The villagers of Menasinahadya however claimed that those killed in the alleged encounter were innocent people and did not allow the police to take away the bodies for post mortem. [13] On 16 July 2007, representatives of various political parties and civil society groups such as Congress, Communist Party of India, the Dalit Sangarsh Samiti, Karnataka Rajya Raitha Sangha, All India Trade Union Congress and Indian National Trade Union Congress demanded a judicial probe into the encounter stating that it was fake. [14]

On 7 August 2007, a Maoist identified as Talari Krishna alias Pochaiah was killed in an alleged encounter with the Grey Hounds in Nallamala forests in Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh. [15] Kurnool District Collector M. Dana Kishore has ordered a magisterial inquiry into the death of Talari Krishna. The Revenue Divisional Officer at Nandyal will inquire into the death. [16]

On 26 September 2007, four alleged Maoists, including three women were killed by the police in an alleged encounter at Amidala village in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh. The police have claimed to have recovered two 303 rifles, one DBBL gun, and five kit bags from the encounter site. [17] The deceased have been identified as Swetha of Maddigaruvu, Chanti Babu of Tulam village and Vijaya of Deddilawaka village in East Godavari and Mandapa Nagaratnam alias Shakeela. But the villagers of Amidala have alleged that the encounter was “fake”. According to the villagers, six Naxalites came to the village in the morning of 26 September 2007 and a police party surrounded them. While Swetha was killed in the firing, two Naxalites managed to escape and other three Naxalites surrendered to the police when the police assured them that they would not be harmed. But the police personnel allegedly tied their hands and took them to the nearby forests and killed them in fake encounter. [18]

The police personnel have been accused of rape.  On the morning of 20 August 2007, 11 tribal women were allegedly gang raped by the Greyhound policemen during anti-Naxalite operations at Vakapalli village under Nurmati panchayat in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh. According to the victims, 21 Greyhound policemen entered the village around 6 a.m, and raided their houses on the charges that their family members were associated with the Naxalites. While some of the women were raped in their homes, some others were raped in the fields. [19] Ten of the victims were between 20-30 years and one was 45 years old. The police allegedly tried to hush up the incident. They even failed to conduct an identification parade of the suspects, although the victims have claimed that they could identify the rapists. On 30 August 2007, the National Human Rights Commission took suo motu cognizance of the incident and sent notice to the Senior Superintendent of Police, Vishakhapatnam district and the Director General of Police, Andhra Pradesh to submit a factual report within four weeks. But till date, no action has been taken to identify and prosecute the rapists.

II. Violations of international humanitarian laws by the Naxalites

The Naxalites killed at least 109 persons including 60 civilians and 49 security personnel during July – September 2007.

Table 4: Killings by the Naxalites

States

Civilians

Security forces

Total

Andhra Pradesh

8

0

8

Bihar

9

7

16

Chhattisgarh

21

41

62

Jharkhand

15

0

15

Karnataka

0

1

1

Maharashtra

1

0

1

Madhya Pradesh

0

0

0

Orissa

4

0

4

Uttar Pradesh

0

0

0

West Bengal

2

0

2

Total

60

49

109

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a. Ban on farming and killing of the tribal farmers  

In July 2007, the Naxalites banned farming in the Bastar region of Chhattisgarh “to protest against the exploitation of the state's natural resources by the Government”. [20] Whoever defied the ban was given the death sentence. According to the police, at least 11 tribal farmers have been killed by the Naxalites for working in their fields in July 2007 in Bijapur police district alone. [21]

On the night of 8 July 2007, Naxalites killed two farmers identified as Kalmu Dulla, 50, and Marwi Mura, 40, for working in their fields at Chintagufa village in Bijapur police district of Chhattisgarh. The deceased were abducted, beaten up and then hacked to death. Their bodies were recovered on 9 July 2007. [22]

On 17 July 2007, Naxalites killed four farmers at Mallapara village near Gangalur in Bijapur police district when they were farming in the fields. A group of heavily armed Naxalites caught the four farmers identified as Sukdas, Hemla Lachhu, Hemla Somu and Hemla Somlu and killed them in the fields. [23]

On 25 July 2007, the Naxalites hacked to death two tribal farmers identified as Kudhi Mangru of Chareli village and Potai Mangu of Bedka village in Bijapur district. [24]

The other tribal farmers of Bijapur police district who were killed by the Naxalites for cultivating their fields included Madvi Lakhma (38) of Keshkutul village in Bhairamgarh block who was killed on the night of 30 June 2007; Lappa Sodi of Keshkutul village in Bhairamgarh block who was killed on 17 July 2007; Lakam Poriya who was killed at his village under Koitpal police station; Sarsa Mangu of Jangla Advada village who was killed on 16 July 2007; Podami Somli of Bade Tungali village under Jangla police station who was killed on 22 July 2007; Kadti Kamlu (30) of Cherli village near Mirtur who was killed on 24 July 2007 and Hemla Aitu who was killed in front of his family members at Ballapara village near Gangalur in Bijapur district on the night of 27 July 2007. [25]

Apart from killings, the Naxalites also allegedly looted and destroyed the properties of the farmers who defied their ban.

The Maoists also disrupted elections. On the night of 6 September 2007, the Maoists shot dead two persons identified as Nimai Murmu Dalpati and Badal Pramanik during a raid at Digha village under Ghatshila police station in East Singhbhum district of Jharkhand for taking part in the Jamshedpur Lok Sabha by-elections held on 29 August 2007. The Maoists had boycotted the by-elections. [26]

 b. Killing of the alleged “police informers”

The Maoists targeted civilians who were not their supporters. Often, they identified the victims as “police informers”.

The civilians who were killed by the Naxalites on the charges of being police informers included Nomula Mariadas (22), a surrendered Maoist, at Kallagunta village in Veldurthi mandal in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh on the night of 24 July 2007; [27] Majji Burga of Bedre police station in Bijapur district and Kattam Ramesh of Konta area in Dantewada district in Chhattisgarh on the night of 1 August 2007; [28] Mukund Madhi of Bandiguda village and Babu of MV120 village under the Korkonda block in Malkangiri district of Orissa on the night of 4 August 2007; [29] and Shanti Sena leader, Jiti Jagaranga at his house at Luhaguma village under Gudari police station in Rayagada district of Orissa on the night of 1 September 2007. [30]

c. Killing of the political activists

The Naxalites also continued to target the political leaders and activists. On 7 September 2007, former Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister and Member of Parliament, N Janardhan Reddy and his wife N Rajyalakshmi, a minister in Andhra Pradesh government, miraculously escaped the Maoists' bomb attack near Chitwedu village in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh. [31]

Some of the political activists who were killed by the Naxalites were Congress leader Mandava Ram Reddy at  Banjaragudem village in Khammam district of Andhra Pradesh on 12 July 2007; [32] Nand Kumar Singh, a local leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party and Salwa Judum campaigner at Jangla village in Bijapur district of Chhattisgarh on 17 July 2007; [33]   Gangaram Kohrami (50) of the Congress party in Bijapur police district of Chhattisgarh on the night of 14 September 2007; [34] and Rohit Roy (39), the Secretary of the CPM's Kantapahari branch committee in Lalgarh in West Midnapore district of West Bengal on 10 July 2007. [35]

 d. Summary punishment through Jan Adalat

The Naxalites continued to deliver summary punishment through their Jan Adalat, the People's Court.

On 1 July 2007, two persons identified as Shambhu Shah (35) and Meghu Ram (60) were beaten to death by the Naxalites in the presence of the villagers after the “Jan Adalat” (People's Court) sentenced to death on the charge of being police informers at Sisahani village under Pakri Dayal police station of East Champaran district in Bihar. Another villager Laxmi Shah (75) was critically injured and was being treated at Motihari Sadar Hospital. [36]

On 5 August 2007, Hero Singh Munda, 55 and Rajesh Singh, 35, were abducted and killed after they were found guilty by a “Jan Adalat” at Arki in Jharkhand on the charges of rape and extortion in the name of the Maoists. [37]

On 8 August 2007, Kamruddin (42) of Chatra district of Jharkhand was killed by the Maoists after trying him in a kangaroo court in front of the villagers. The Kangaroo court pronounced punishment by slitting his throat and cutting off his limps. But when the victim pleaded for mercy, the Maoists revised the sentence and ordered that he be let off with a beating. His relatives rushed him to Hazaribagh, which is 75 km away, but he was declared dead on arrival at the Sadar hospital. [38]

On 11 August 2007, the body of Arjun Dehuri, a grocery shop owner, was recovered from the forest near Talab village in Sambalpur district of Orissa. He was abducted by the Maoists along with two other villagers on 9 August 2007 on the charge of being police informers. [39] Arjun Dehuri was reportedly killed after his trial in the People's Court. [40]  

On 24 September 2007, Maoists killed two activists of Jharkhand Prastuti Committee (JPC) identified as Moinuddin Khan and Ram Kishun Bhuiyan at Lawalong village under Simeria police station in Chatra district of Jharkhand. The deceased were abducted on 23 September 2007 and sentenced to death by a Jan Adalat on the charges of working against the Naxalites. [41]

e. Destruction of public properties

The Naxalites continued to indulge in the destruction of public properties. On the night of 11 July 2007, the Maoists blew up the transmission room of Doordarshan's power transmitter, a government guest house and the control room of the 33 KV sub-station in the Chintapalli agency area in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh in protest against bauxite mining and alleged “fake encounter killings” of Maoist leaders. [42]

On the intervening night of 31 July-1 August 2007, the Maoists detonated bombs in Bendi and Demu railway stations in Latehar district in Jharkhand during their 24-hour Jharkhand bandh that began on 31 July 2007. [43]

On the night of 17 July 2007, the Maoists blew up the double storeyed office of the Block Development Officer at Gomia in Bokaro district of Jharkhand. The attack destroyed computers, files and furniture of the office. [44]

On 10 September 2007, the Maoists blew up a transmission tower of state-owned Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL) at Kalimela town in Malkangiri district of Orissa. [45]

On 23 September 2007, Maoists blew up a railway station in Palamu district and railway tracks in two other districts of Jharkhand. In Bihar, the Maoists blew up a long stretch of railway track in Gaya district, and set fire to about 14 trucks on a national highway close to Patna. [46]

3. State responses

The response of the government of India and the State governments remained the same – full of rhetoric and lack of implementation of the programmes.

a. Union Government

On 2 August 2007, the National Security Council (NSC) chaired by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh held a meeting on Naxalism in New Delhi. Union Home Minister Shivraj Patil, Union Home Secretary Madhukar Gupta, National Security Adviser M K Narayanan and top brass of intelligence agencies like the Intelligence Bureau and the Research and Analysis Wing were present at the meeting. [47] Cros-border links of the Maoists, their weaponry and socio-economic development of the Naxal affected regions were discussed among others. [48] Following the NSC meeting, the Centre

selected eight districts - two each in Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Orissa - for launching a “strong anti-Naxalite action”. [49]

On 10 September 2007, the Centre convened a meeting of various ministries such as Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Ministry of Rural Development, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Ministry of Panchayati Raj and Ministry of Environment and Forests to know the status of implementation of various developmental schemes like Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme etc in the rural and tribal areas. The meeting which was chaired by Union Home Secretary Madhukar Gupta reportedly discussed the problems due to which the benefits of development schemes were not reaching the Naxal-affected regions. [50]

b. State Governments

A few state governments also formed joint committees to combat the Naxal problem.

On 13 August 2007, Jharkhand, Orissa and West Bengal formed a Joint Co-ordination Committee (JCC) to curb the Naxalites in the border areas. The mechanisms of the JCC included launching joint operations against the Naxalites and information sharing. [51]

On 29 August 2007, the police officials of Jharkhand and Bihar held high level talks and agreed to conduct joint operations against the Naxalites and to share information on the movement of the Naxalites. The two states also exchanged a list of wanted Naxalites and persons facing criminal charges. [52]

Andhra Pradesh:

On 1 August 2007, Andhra Pradesh government extended the ban on the CPI-Maoists and its six frontal organisations - Radical Youth League, Rythu Coolie Sangham, Radical Student Union, Singareni Karmika Samkhya, Viplava Karmika Samkhya and the All India Revolutionary Students Federation by one more year. [53] On 8 September 2007, Andhra Pradesh Chief Minister Y S Rajashekhar Reddy stated in Hyderabad that his government was willing to hold talks with the Maoists if they “shun violence”. [54]

In August 2007, the Andhra Pradesh government announced cash rewards ranging from Rs 20,000 to Rs 12 lakh for kiling Naxalites. A total of Rs 16 crore was put on the heads of 1,133 Maoists. The cash reward is as follows: Rs 12 lakh each for killing 13 top Maoist leaders of the Central Committee, including Ganapathi and Ramakrishna, Rs 10 lakh each for killing 27 leaders of the State Special Zonal Committees, including Dandakaranya Special Zonal Committee and Andhra-Orissa Border Committee, Rs 8 lakh each for members of State Committees, Rs 6 lakh each for Regional Committee members, Rs 5 lakhs for District Committee and Division Committee secretaries, military platoon commanders and members of the struggle and publicity committees, Rs 3 lakh each for deputy commanders and action team commanders, Rs 2 lakh each for Area Committee and “dalam” (squad) commanders, Rs 1 lakh each for local squad members and military platoon section deputy commanders and Rs 20,000 to Rs 50,000 for killing lower level Maoist cadres. [55]

Bihar:

The State government of Bihar headed by Nitish Kumar has reportedly been preparing a three-pronged strategy to defeat the Naxalites: increased security action against the Naxalites, strengthening the intelligence network and effective implementation of the development schemes. [56] In the wake of the Naxal attack on two police stations in Rohtas district that killed nine persons including five policemen [57] , Bihar demanded 10 companies of paramilitary forces from the Centre to fight the Naxalites. [58]

The government of Bihar has reportedly negotiating with insurance companies including General Insurance Corporation, National Insurance Corporation and Life Insurance Corporation for providing insurance cover of Rs 10 lakh to the police personnel deployed in the Naxal affected areas. [59]

Chhattisgarh:

The Chhattisgarh government is still banking on the Salwa Judum campaign to end the Naxalite problem. Nothing could be funnier than the statement of the Chief Minister of Chhattisgarh Mr Raman Singh of 7 August 2007 that Sawla Judum campaign was based on the Gandhian philosophy of non violence! [60]

In August 2007, the state government of Chhattisgarh allegedly sought to expel the Medicines Sans Frontiers (Doctors Without Borders) from Dantewada district. ACHR strongly condemned the move and warned that it will be “counter-productive measure that can only help the Naxalites”. The State Government of Chhattisgarh was forced to take a U-turn and clarified that the State government has not even contemplated on barring the NGO from working in any part of the State. The Government is sensitive to the humanitarian medical aid that has been provided by the Medicines Sans Frontiers across the Globe and in India”.

On 13 July 2007, Chief Minister of Chhattisgarh, Raman Singh stated in the State Assembly that a separate battalion comprising of the Special Police Officers (SPOs) would be created to fight the Naxalites. [61]

On 26 July 2007, the Chhattisgarh Assembly reportedly conducted a secret sitting from 11 am to 3 pm to discuss the Naxal menace. Apart from the Chief Secretary Shiv Raj Singh, Principal Secretary S V Prabhat and Director General of Police Vishwaranjan, no other officials, media and the public was allowed to be present in the meeting. Chief Minister Raman Singh stated that the closed door meeting of the Members of Legislative Assembly (MLAs) was held to discuss the Naxalite issue without fear since the Maoists targeted those MLAs who spoke against them. [62]

Karnataka:

On 11 July 2007, Karnataka Home Minister, M.P. Prakash announced in the Assembly that the state government was ready for talks with the Naxalites if they first surrendered their arms. The state government also expressed its desire to form a committee comprising members of the state legislature to suggest measures to end the Naxalite conflict in the state. [63]

On 19 August 2007, Mr M P Prakash stated that the state government was planning to increase the strength of the Anti Naxal Force (ANF) from the present 543 personnel to 1,117 personnel. [64] The state government also sanctioned a helicopter to the State Police to be used in anti-Naxal operations. [65]

Orissa:

On 4 July 2007, the state government of Orissa announced that it would adopt a two-pronged strategy involving implementation of developmental programmes for tribals and strengthening state police force to counter Maoists. [66]


[1] . Former Andhra CM escapes unhurt in landmine blast, 3 killed, The Hindustan Times, 7 September 2007

[2] . 24 securitymen, 20 Naxals killed, The Tribune, 11 July 2007

[3] . 15 C'garh cops killed in Naxal firing, The Hitavadaonline, 30 August 2007

[4] . Five ‘naxalites' killed in encounter, The Hindu, 11 July 2007

[5] . Eleven Girijan women allege gang-rape by policemen, The Hindu, 21 August 2007 

[6] . Two ‘informers' clubbed to death by Maoists, The Indian Express, 3 July 2007

[7] . 8 districts selected for 'strong' anti-Naxal action, Times of India, 27 September 2007

[8] . The Chhattisgarh Police also claimed that about 20 Naxalites were killed in the encounter which took place in the dense forests of Elampatti-Regadgatta in Dantewada district on 10 July 2007 but as no body of the killed Naxals was recovered by the police, ACHR did not include this number of casualty in the total figure.

[9] Naxal leader killed in AP, The Deccan Herald, 3 July 2007

[10] . Andhra Pradesh tribal areas hit by Maoist shutdown, The Hindustan Times, 2 July 2007  

[11] . Judge orders re-postmortem of Somanna, The Hindu, 3 July 2007  

[12] . Re-postmortem on Somanna's body amidst tension, The Hindu, 4 July 2007

[13] . Five ‘naxalites' killed in encounter, The Hindu, 11 July 2007

[14] . Judicial probe sought into encounter, The Hindu, 17 July 2007  

[15] . Maoist killed, constable injured, The Hindu, 8 August 2007

[16] . Probe ordered into Maoist's death, The Hindu, 23 August 2007

[17] . Four naxalites killed in encounter in Andhra Pradesh, The Hindu, 27 September 2007

[18] . Naxal's father refuses to accept daughter's body, The Hindu,  28 September 2007

[19] . Eleven Girijan women allege gang-rape by policemen, The Hindu, 21 August 2007 

[20] . Maoists enforce ban, kill farmers, The Indian Express, 10 July 2007

[21] . 11 farmers killed by Maoists in a month, The Hitavadaonline, 31 July 2007

[22] . Maoists enforce ban, kill farmers, The Indian Express, 10 July 2007

[23] . 11 farmers killed by Maoists in a month, The Hitavadaonline, 31 July 2007

[24] . Bastar: Naxals kill two farmers for flouting diktat, The Indian Express, 26 July 2007

[25] . 11 farmers killed by Maoists in a month, The Hitavadaonline, 31 July 2007

[26] . Two killed in Maoist attack in Jharkhand village, The Hindu, 7 September 2007, http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/004200709071421.htm

[27] . Maoists gun down ‘informer', Newindpress.com, 25 July 2007  

[28] . Maoists kill two civilians in Chhattisgarh, Hindustan Times, 2 August 2007

[29] . Two shot dead by naxals?, The Hindu, 6 August 2007

[30] . Maoist gun down Shanti Sena chief, The Pragativadi,  3 September 2007

[31] . Former Andhra CM escapes unhurt in landmine blast, 3 killed, The Hindustan Times, 7 September 2007

[32] . Congress leader shot dead by Maoists, The Hindu, 13 July 2007

[33] . Maoists kill BJP worker, 5 farmers, Times of India, 18 July 2007

[34] . CH: Maoists kill Congress leader, tribal, Headlines India.com, 15 September 2007, available at http://www.headlinesindia.com/naxalite/index.jsp?news_code=56522

[35] . Maoist murder, The Telegraph, 11 July 2007

[36] . Two ‘informers' clubbed to death by Maoists, The Indian Express, 3 July 2007

[37] . Maoists behead two in Jharkhand, India eNews, 7 August 2007, http://www.indiaenews.com/india/20070807/64343.htm

[38] . Unplanned murder by Maoists, The Telegraph, 10 August 2007

[39] . Maoists kill abducted villager, The Hindu, 12 August 2007

[40] . Maoists kill hostage, The Hindustan Times, 12 August 2007

[41] . Maoists kill two JPC activists, The Telegraph, 25 September 2007

[42] . Naxals wreak havoc in Chintapalli, The Hindu, 13 July 2007

[43] . Maoists kill 1, blow up two railway stations, The Tribune, 2 August 2007

[44] . Red show of strength, Telegraph, 19 July 2007  

[45] . Suspected Maoists blow up BSNL tower, The Hindu, 11 September 2007  

[46] . Maoists blow up railway station, tracks in E.India, Reuters, 23 September 2007

[47] . National Security Council discusses Naxal threat, The Tribune, 3 August 2007

[48] . Naxal meet focuses on cross-border links, weaponry, The Indian Express, 3 August 2007

[49] . 8 districts selected for 'strong' anti-Naxal action, Times of India, 27 September 2007

[50] . Meeting on followup of schemes in Naxal areas, The Asian Age, 11 September 2007

[51] . United effort to curb Naxalites, The Telegraph, 14 August 2007

[52] . Jharkhand, Bihar to conduct joint operation against naxalites, The Hindu, 31 August 2007

[53] . State extends ban on Maoists, The Deccan Chronicle, 2 August 2007

[54] . AP govt ready to hold talks with Naxals: CM, Rediff News, 9 September 2007

[55] . Kill Naxalites, get rewarded -AP revives policy that discredited TDP regime, The Tribune, 5 August 2007

[56] . Three-pronged strategy to combat naxalites, The Hindu, 7 July 2007

[57] . Nine killed in Naxal attack, The Hindustan Times, 2 July 2007

[58] . Bihar seeks 10 companies of paramilitary forces, Rediff News, 2 July 2007

[59] . Bihar plans insurance for police, The Hindu, 4 July 2007

[60] . Salwa Judum run on Gandhian philosophy: Raman Singh, Rediff News, 7 August 2007, available at http://www.rediff.com/news/2007/aug/07naxal.htm

[61] . Chhattisgarh plans to raise SPO battalion, The Pioneer, 14 July 2007

[62] . Chhattisgarh Assembly holds secret sitting on Naxal issue, Rediff News, 26 July 2007

[63] . Prakash: ready for talks with naxals, The Hindu, 12 July 2007

[64] . More teeth for Anti-Naxal Force soon, Deccan Herald, 20 August 2007

[65] . State buys helicopter for police, The Deccan Chronicle, 26 July 2007

[66] . Rebel relief, The Telegraph, 5 July 2007

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