• Andhra Pradesh

    1. Overview.. 1
    2. Human rights violations by the security forces. 3
    a. Killings in alleged “fake encounters”. 3
    b. Custodial violence. 5
    3. Violations of international humanitarian laws by the AOGs. 6
    a. Violations of the right to life. 6
    b. Kidnappings and extortions. 7
    4. Human rights violations by the vigilante groups. 8
    5. Violence against women. 8
    6. Violations of the rights of the Dalits. 9
    7. Violations of the rights of the tribals. 10
    a. Land alienation. 10
    b. Displacement due to development projects. 11
    8. Violations of the rights of the child. 12
    9. Special Focus: Farmers' suicides. 12

    1. Overview

    The Indian National Congress and the Telangana Rashtra Samiti alliance government of Andhra Pradesh extended the ban on the Communist Party of India (Maoists) and six of its frontal organizations for one more year on 11 August 2006.[1] On 25 July 2006, Director General of Police, Swaranjit Sen claimed that 259 Naxalites (also known as Maoists), including 30 top leaders, had been killed in encounters, 1,138 Naxalites had been arrested while 1,104 had surrendered to the police since January 2005.[2] Many of the Naxalite leaders including Andhra Pradesh State Committee Secretary, Madhav alias Gurra Chennaiah who was killed at Nallamala forests in Prakasam district on 23 July 2006, were killed in alleged fake encounters.[3] Despite allegations that the Nallamala encounter was fake,[4] the State Government rejected the demand for a judicial probe on the ground that a magisterial inquiry was already ordered.[5] This only strengthened the suspicions of alleged extrajudicial executions by the State agencies.

    In 2006, the State Government proposed to raise a tribal battalion to combat the Naxalites. The proposal was opposed by tribal organisations and human rights groups.[6]

    Although both the Central Government and the State Government of Andhra Pradesh claimed to have brought the Naxalite problem under control,[7] the recovery of 600 unloaded rockets, 275 unassembled rockets, 27 rocket launchers, 70 gelatine sticks and other explosive materials from alleged Naxalites in Mahbubnagar and Prakasam districts by the State Police on 8 September 2006[8] depicted the undercurrent of the Naxalite conflict. The Naxalites were responsible for blatant violations of international humanitarian laws including killings, abductions and extortion. Many innocent civilians were killed on the charges of being police informers or for their association with political parties.

    Women accused of crimes were picked up and detained at the police station under the charges of male policemen. They were sexually abused in police custody.[9] Women were also targeted as “witches”. Trafficking of women and girls was rampant in the State.

    The press continued to face repression. On the night of 21 March 2006, a senior journalist of Times of India, G Srikanth was manhandled and taken to the Punjagutta police station by Sub Inspector Ranga Reddy and constable Mansoor Ali in Hyderabad. His only crime was having a cup of tea at a wayside stall in the heart of the city at night. Although Mr Srikanth identified himself, the police personnel did not listen to him. He was detained and subjected to ill-treatment throughout the night.[10]

    The minorities also faced physical attacks. On 15 January 2006,  Superintendent of Police of Nizamabad district, Mahesh Chandra Laddha stated that four persons identified as Donthula Ravi, Sayyed Imran, Chilka Kishan and Areti Narender were arrested in connection with the attack on pastor Aharan in Nizamabad town on 12 January 2006. 11 more accused involved in the attack were absconding. According to Mr Laddha, two Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad leaders from Warangal and Kurnool districts were involved in the attack. The police also arrested eight persons in connection with the attack on Yerrani Balaraju, who preached Christianity in Domakonda mandal headquarters in Nizamabad district, on 13 January 2006.[11]

    The judiciary continued to be plagued by delays. By the end of December 2006, there were only 34 judges against the sanctioned strength of 39 judges in the Andhra Pradesh High Court, while there were 107 vacancies of judges in the District and Subordinate Courts as on 30 September 2006. There were a total of 1,54,692 cases pending before the High Court of Andhra Pradesh while a staggering 9,61,383 cases were pending before the District and Sub-ordinate Courts as on 30 September 2006.[12]

    2. Human rights violations by the security forces

    The security forces were responsible for extrajudicial executions, custodial violence etc.

    a. Killings in alleged “fake encounters”

    During 2006, several top Maoist leaders were killed by the police in alleged encounters. On 25 July 2006, Director General of Police, Swaranjit Sen reportedly stated that 259 Maoists, including 30 top leaders, had been killed in encounters, 1,138 Maoists had been arrested while 1,104 had surrendered to the police since January 2005.[13]

    There were allegations that the police first arrested the Maoist leaders and then killed them in fake encounters. On 23 July 2006, Andhra Pradesh State Committee Secretary of the CPI (Maoists) Madhav alias Gurra Chennaiah and seven other Maoists were shot dead by the police in an alleged encounter in the Nallamala forests in Prakasam district.[14] Renowned left-wing poet, Gaddar alleged that they were killed in a fake encounter.[15] The Telugu Desam Party also sought an enquiry by a “competent agency”.[16] However, the State Home Minister K. Jana Reddy rejected the demand for a judicial probe into the Nallamala encounter on the ground that a magisterial inquiry was already ordered.[17]

    Following a petition from the Andhra Pradesh Civil Liberties Committee, the Andhra Pradesh High Court ordered the State Government to conduct the post mortem of the deceased at Guntur Medical College under supervision of a team of forensic experts and videograph the entire proceedings.[18]

    Similarly, on the night of 27 December 2006, another top Maoist leader identified as Chandramouli, the CPI (Maoist) Central Committee member, and his wife Jyotiakka alias Devakka were killed by the Greyhounds, an elite commando force, in an alleged encounter in Panapalli forest area of Gudem Kotta Veedhi Mandal of Visakhapatnam district.[19] However, on 28 December 2006, poet Gaddar submitted a memorandum to Chief Minister Y S Rajasekhara Reddy demanding a judicial probe into the encounter, which he claimed was fake. Gaddar claimed that the couple were brought to Visakhapatnam and killed.[20]

    Some of the Maoist leaders whom the police claimed to have killed in encounters during 2006 included alleged CPI (Maoists) commander of Atchampet local guerrilla squad, Outu Kurumaiah alias Murali near Rayavaram village in Mahabubnagar district on 3 July 2006,[21] CPI (Maoist)'s Nallamala Area Committee member, Telugu Pochaiah alias Venu at Nallakalva in Kurnool district on 15 July 2006,[22] six alleged Maoists including Karimnagar (East Division) Secretary Madhu and District Committee member Cherukuri Rattaiah in two separate alleged encounters in Warangal and Nalgonda districts on 15 September 2006,[23] alleged Deputy Commander of Penna Ahobilam dalam of the CPI (Maoist) Venkatesh alias Babu near Korrakodu in Anantapur district on 18 September 2006,[24] an alleged Maoist leader Samala Venkatesu alias Sudarshan in the forest area of Nallamada in Anantapur district on 6 October 2006,[25] an alleged Maoist leader Ramulu alias Ravi near Darlagondi village in Visakhapatnam district on 7 October 2006,[26] nine alleged Maoists including Obulesu, State Committee member and Rayalaseema Divisional Committee Secretary in the Gopavaram reserve forests in Kadapa district on 10 November 2006,[27] Banda Reddy Subha Rao alias Gautham, alleged member of the CPI (Maoist) Andhra-Orissa border State Zonal Committee member at Chemagadda forest in East Godavari on 24 November 2006,[28] and three alleged Maoists, including District Secretary Subash alias Badida Rammurthy and Mankidi Lakshmaiah alias Nagulu near Kothagudem in Khammam district on 8 December 2006.[29]

    The Andhra Pradesh Police also failed to distinguish between the civilians and the Maoists during anti-Maoists operations. On the night of 7 April 2006, the police killed a civilian identified as T Nageshwar Rao at Kondaparthy village in Warangal district suspecting him to be a Maoist cadre. On the same night, 19-year-old Marri Lavakar, son of M. Chandraiah, was allegedly killed by the police when he was returning from the fields at Kadavalli village in Medak district. Director-General of Police, Swaranjit Sen reportedly admitted the mistake and promised compensation to the bereaved families.[30] On 9 April 2006, the State Government ordered a high-level inquiry into the killing of these two civilians.[31]

    The police continued to resort to indiscriminate use of fire-arms. On 27 March 2006, a fisherman identified as Chodupalle Nookaraju was killed and dozens other were injured when the police fired at a mob from fishing community who were protesting against the construction of a port by a Dubai-based consortium at Gangavaram in Visakhapatnam. The construction of the port would displace about 3,600 families from the fishing village of Gangavaram. The fisherfolk were demanding rehabilitation and jobs for their youth in the port and clashed with the police. The State Government announced ex-gratia payment of Rs 3 lakh to the family of the deceased and announced an inquiry.[32]

    b. Custodial violence

    The Andhra Pradesh Police continued to be responsible for custodial deaths and other human rights violations.

    On 15 January 2006, a woman identified as Nevavat Bujji, wife of Manya of Karmanghat, died in the custody of Prohibition and Excise (P&E) police at Saroornagar in Hyderabad. She was reportedly picked up by Saroornagar excise officials on the charge of selling illicitly distilled liquor on 14 January 2006. P&E officials stated that she had consumed phenyl in the bathroom of Saroornagar P&E police station and declared death at Osmania General Hospital at about 6.30 am on 15 January 2006. However, Bujji's kin Nenavat Sali in her complaint to the police alleged that the deceased was raped and tortured to death by in-charge of police station, Inspector P. Krishna, two Sub-Inspectors and other constables in the police station. Based on the complaint, Saroornagar police registered a case of wrongful confinement, rape and murder against the personnel at the P&E police station. A magisterial inquiry was also ordered into the custodial death.[33]

    Others who were killed in police custody during 2006 included a farmer identified as Degavath Panthulu of Moodugudisela tanda of Bada Bheemgal gram panchayat, who died due to alleged torture in the lock-up of Bheemgal police station in Nizamabad district on 7 March 2006,[34] Manda Yadagiri, resident of Kistapur village in Medchal mandal of Ranga Reddy district, who died in the Gajwel police station in Medak district on 9 June 2006[35] and Shaik Ali Pasha, a financier, who died at Santoshnagar police station in Hyderabad on 25 July 2006.[36]

    There were also reports of torture.  On 13 March 2006, Sheikh Mahmood was picked up by the Amberpet police from his house in Premnagar on eve of Holi. Following his release on 20 March 2006, Sheikh Mahmood alleged that he was subjected to third degree torture during illegal custody. The victim filed a complaint with the Andhra Pradesh State Human Rights Commission against Inspector Shivaram Prasad.[37]

    Failure to pay bribe to the police warranted torture. On 3 June 2006, Syed Saleem of Achi Reddy Nagar was picked up by the police and taken to Falaknuma police station in Hyderabad for interrogation in connection with theft of Rs 1.25 lakh worth gold allegedly by his friend Mohammed Saleem from his own house. Sub-Inspector T. Nagender allegedly demanded Rs 10,000 from Syed Saleem. He was allegedly beaten up by the police during three days of illegal detention at Falaknuma police station.[38]

    In July 2006, third additional sessions judge of district (fast track) court in Adilabad district, S Madhavarao sentenced a Circle Inspector, three Sub-Inspectors and three Head Constables of the excise department and four Andhra Pradesh Special Police constables and one Head Constable to 10 years imprisonment and imposed a fine of Rs 5,000 each in the custodial death of one Machcha Narsaiah of Luxettipet mandal in an excise police station on 9 October 1997. An inquiry conducted by Criminal Investigation Department had found the accused guilty.[39]

    3. Violations of international humanitarian laws by the AOGs

    The Maoists continued to be responsible for gross violations of the Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions and resorted to violations of the right to life, extortion, abduction, hostage taking, torture,  awarding kangaroo justice through its socalled Peoples' Court, Jana Adalat etc.

    a. Violations of the right to life

    Following the killing of Madhav, Andhra Pradesh State Committee Secretary of the Maoists by the police on 23 July 2006, the Maoists released a list of 62 individuals comprising the State's top policemen, politicians and bureaucrats and announced rewards to kill them. The list included Chief Minister Y.S. Rajasekhara Reddy and his colleagues, DGP Swaranjit Sen (Rs 5 lakh), State Intelligence Chief Aravinda Rao (Rs 3 lakh).[40]

    The alleged police informers were specific targets of the Maoists. Surrendered Naxalites were usually suspected and targeted as police informers. In India, the largest number of such killings was reported from Andhra Pradesh during 2006. 

    Even the minors were not spared. On 19 March 2006, two minors identifeid as Nagesh (15) and Yellisha (13) were shot dead by the alleged Maoists after being kidnapped from Pedda Bommlapuram village in Prakasham district. A note left with the bodies and signed by Singa Prasad, the Secretary of the Nallamala Forest Division Committee of the Maoists, reportedly alleged that the boys had joined Maoist dalams only to “monitor our movements and inform the police”.[41]

    Others who were killed on the charges of being “police informers” included Nimmala Durgaiah, a surrendered Naxalite, at Kalvapalli village in Warangal district on 12 July 2006,[42] H. Laxmi Narsu at Patwaripally village in Warangal district on 26 August 2006;[43] Chimala Bakkaraju, a surrendered Naxalite, at Pagideru village in Khammam district on 2 September 2006,[44] Sunder Rao at Mummuru village in Khammam district on 8 September 2006,[45] M. Venkanna, a former Naxalite at Rampur village in Warangal district on 17 September 2006,[46] and Jaganmohan Reddy, a contractor, and Bolla Krishna, upa sarpanch (vice-village headman) of Anantaram in Khammam district on 12 October 2006.[47]

    Political party activists were also killed by the Naxalites. The victims included Telegu Desam Party leader T Nageswar Rao at Ongole in Prakasam district on 1 July 2006,[48] Congress activist Kotla Nageswar Reddy at Gangavaram village in Prakasam district on 10 July 2006,[49] Telangana Rashtra Samiti district committee leader and advocate Rupu Reddy at Gandhamapalli village in Khammam district on 31 July 2006,[50] Congress leader Sreemanthula Seetarama Rao at Marrugudem village in Khammam district on 9 November 2006,[51] and Congress leader Tumma Rami Reddy at his residence in Guntur on 24 November 2006.[52] 

    Even the kins of the political leaders were not spared. On 21 October 2006, Naxalites killed Chikkudu Lakshmaiah, elder brother of Congress legislator, Vamshikrishna at Elmapalli village under Amrabad mandal in Mahbubnagar district.[53]

    b. Kidnappings and extortions

    The Maoists were also responsible for a large number of kidnappings. On 30 April 2006, the Maoists hijacked two luxury boats in the middle of the Nagarjunasagar reservoir and took captive about 35 tourists and the crew members. Later the Maoists freed all the captives with warning never to sail down the reservoir again and blew up the boats before fleeing into the forests.[54] The police claimed to have killed four of the five Maoists who had hijacked the tourists' boats in an encounter at Maddimadugu in Mahabubnagar district later on the same day.[55]

    Many of the kidnappings were related to extortions. On 19 June 2006, the CPI (ML) Pratighatana cadres abducted senior General Manager of the Nagarjuna Cements Limited, V.V. Rama Raju and his colleague Galib Saheb from the factory premises in Kadimpothavaram in G. Konduru mandal in Vijayawada district. The abductors demanded Rs 1 crore ransom. However, they were reportedly set free following police operations. While V.V. Rama Raju was released on 21 June 2006, Mr. Galib was released the next day.[56]

    According to the police, irrigation contractors in Naxal affected districts like Warangal and Karimnagar had to pay 2-3% of their total contract amount to the Maoists. On 3 April 2006, the police reportedly recovered Rs 50 lakhs from Jupally Raghupathi Rao, the upa-sarpanch of Kudikilla village in Kollapur mandal, and Yeruvaka Shivashankar, a site engineer of VARKS Engineer Groups, who were allegedly taking the money collected from the sub-contractors of the Kalwakurthy irrigation project to be paid to the Naxalites as extortion.[57]

    The Naxalites also issued threat notices against any one participating in the local body Zila Parishad elections in Warangal district scheduled for 2 July 2006.[58] A few days prior to the Zila Parishad elections, the Naxalites detonated a landmine blast at the house of former Congress Member of Legislative Assembly, P. Balaraju in Chintapalle.They also burnt down the flags of major political parties in Lakkavarapupeta, Devarapalle and Pedavalasa villages in the district.[59]

    4. Human rights violations by the vigilante groups

    There were many vigilante groups consisting of the former Maoists operating in the State. Some of these were Fear Vikas, Green Tigers, Nalladandu, Red Tigers, Tirumala Tigers, Palnadu Tigers, Kakatiya Cobras, Narsa Cobras, Black Cobra, Nallamalla Cobras and Kranthi Sena.

    These vigilante groups targeted the suspected Maoist sympathisers. On 4 May 2006, suspected Nallamala Cobras blew up the house of J. Koteswara Rao, Vice-President of the Praja Kala Mandali, an alleged front organisation of the Maoists, in Prakasam district.[60]

    5. Violence against women

    Women continued to be victims of violence, societal discrimination, cruel cultural practices and trafficking.

    Women accused of crimes were picked up and detained at the police station under the charges of male policemen. On 30 December 2006, a woman from Guntur was allegedly raped by constable B Radha Krishna at One Town police station in Vijayawada. The accused was suspended and a case was registered against him. The police stated that the woman was picked up in connection with seven cases registered against her.[61]

    Women continued to be targeted as alleged witches. On 28 November 2006, police arrested nine persons including two women on the charges of assaulting and humiliating 45-year-old Ms Guvvala Erukalamma who was suspected of performing “witch-craft” at Marrikuntapalli village in Pedacherlopalli Mandal of Prakasam district. The accused identified as Guvvala Narayana, Guvvala Ramesh, Shanmugam, Lakshmi Narayana, who were relatives of the victim, and five others held the victim responsible for the death of the six-day- old son of Narayana. They tied her to a pole, beat her and tried to strip her. The victim was rescued by some other villagers.[62]

    In January 2006, a housewife named Ms T. Rupa from Budili village in Gorantla mandal under Anantapur district told media persons at the Press Club in Anantapur that she was being harassed continuously on the charges of being a witch by her husband and the villagers. The villagers believed that people in the village were falling sick because of her “black magic”. The victim further alleged that she was given injections with HIV infected needles and blood mixed in pepsi. Her husband refused to give her money for HIV screening test. The victim further stated that she did not dare to lodge a police complaint as the villagers and her husband had threatened to kill her if she did so.[63]

    Andhra Pradesh had been a source of trafficking of women and girls. Hundreds of women were never traced. In 2004, about 133 women went missing, of whom 12 women could not be traced. In 2005, 162 missing cases were reported of whom 32 could not be traced. During January- August 2006, 164 women, including 27 from Visakhapatnam, 9 from Srikakulam district reportedly went missing, of whom 61 women could not be traced.[64]

    6. Violations of the rights of the Dalits

    The population of the Scheduled Castes (Dalits) in the State was 12,339,496 according to 2001 census of India. They constituted 16.2% of the total population of the State (76,210,007).[65] Incidence of violence against the Dalits was very high. The National Crime Records Bureau recorded a total of 3,117 cases of violations against the Dalits in the State which amounted to 11.9% of the total violations against the Dalits in India during 2005. These included 37 murder cases, 74 rape cases, 21 abduction cases, 9 arson cases, and 1,244 cases under SC/ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act.

    The Dalits continued to face social boycott whenever they tried to have access to their basic human rights. On 4 January 2006, The Deccan Chroncle reported that the Dalits of Basaladoddi village of Peddakaduburu mandal in Kurnool district were socially boycotted by the upper castes after they refused to follow an ancient tradition of carrying the heavy Kumbham at the folk festival of local deity Bangaramma in the village on 27 December 2005. Since the announcement of social boycott, the Dalits were denied access to the village shops and the hotels refused to serve them food and tea while the local flour miller refused to winnow their paddy.[66]

    On 6 February 2006, the upper caste members attacked Dalits at Lalapalli village in Eligaid mandal under Karimnagar district following an altercation between two Dalit villagers and three upper caste people about construction of a temple separately by the upper castes in the village. At least three Dalit villagers identified as N Shankar, his brother Latchaiah and father Durgaiah were beaten up. The police registered a case under the SC/ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Act against 17 persons and arrested 15 of them.[67]

    7. Violations of the rights of the tribals

    The  population of the Scheduled Tribes (tribals) in Andhra Pradesh according to 2001 census was 5,024,104 which is 6.6% of the total population of the State (76,210,007).[68] The National Crime Records Bureau recorded 515 cases of atrocities against the tribals in the State during 2005, which amounted to 9% of the total all India cases of atrocities against the tribals. These included 12 murder cases, 34 rape cases, 196 cases under SC/ST Prevention of Atrocities Act, etc.

    The tribals were disproportionate victims of land alienation and displacement by socalled development projects.

    The tribals were also harassed on the charges of being Naxalites. On 20 January 2006, Railway police arrested 165 tribals from Adilabad district at Jangaon in Warangal district suspecting them to be Maoist sympathizers traveling to Hyderabad to create trouble on the occasion of All India Congress Committee plenary. The tribals were going to participate in a programme to be held at Karmanghat in connection with the distribution of lands.[69]

    a. Land alienation

    Despite having stringent provisions under the Andhra Pradesh Schedule Areas Land Transfer Regulation to protect the lands of the tribals in the Scheduled Areas, the tribal lands were increasingly alienated. On 21 March 2006, the State Government informed the State Assembly that the non-tribal individuals adopted dubious methods to take over the lands of the tribals in the names of their tribal wives after marrying them. About 57,367 acres of tribal land was under illegal occupation of non-tribal individuals in West Godavari district alone.[70]

    According to present estimates, non-tribals held as much as 48 percent of the land in Scheduled Areas of Andhra Pradesh. Since the Andhra Pradesh Scheduled Areas Land Transfer Regulation came into effect in 1959, 72,001 cases of land alienation were detected involving 3,21,685 acres of land in the State as of September 2005. These were stated to be only half of the actual land alienation in Scheduled Areas. Out of these 72,001 cases registered under the Andhra Pradesh Scheduled Areas Land Transfer Regulation, 70,183 cases were disposed off and 47.47% of the cases involving 162,989 acres were decided against the tribals.[71] The State-government sponsored Giri Nyayam, Legal Assistance Programme for Land, was able to restore only about 1,06,477 acres of land to tribals in 29,873 cases as of June 2006.[72]

    The main reasons for the majority of the cases going in favour of the non-tribals were attributed to lack of understanding of the laws on the part of the implementing authorities, absence of legal support to tribals, and in most cases, the tribals not being a party in the proceedings. In one such case of alienation of tribal land, it took 37 years for Ms. Kumra Munku Bai, a Gond tribal, of Jaongon in Adilabad district to get back her father's land from B Shankar, a non-tribal money lender, but not without the help of Member of Parliament, Mr. Jairam Ramesh. Her father, Todsam Gangu, who owned 18 acres of agricultural land, took a loan of Rupees 1,400 in 1969 (today approximately US$32) from the money lender, and agreed to lease out his land for three years. But the money lender refused to return the land. Gongu approached the authorities, but for lack of guidance and legal help, the case dragged on and Gangu passed away in the meanwhile. In March 2006, the local authorities after due enquiry passed eviction orders against the non-tribal money lender, and handed over the possession of the land, now valued at 3,00,000  Rupees (US$6,800) , to Manku Bai's family.[73]

    b. Displacement due to development projects

    On 24 January 2006, the State Government announced its decision to retain the proposed 150-ft height for Polavaram dam being built on the Godavari river at Polavaram in West Godavari district on the basis of the recommendations of a nine-member committee of experts headed by Preetam Singh, former Chairman of the Central Water Commission, which was mandated to study the issue of submersion of land under the project.[74] In April 2006, the affected tribals filed a petition in the Supreme Court challenging the construction of the Polavaram (also known as Indira Sagar) multi-purpose irrigation project on Godavari river by Andhra Pradesh Government. According to the petition, about 1,95,357 persons from 48,211 families will be displace by the dam at full reservoir level and submerge 276 villages in Andhra Pradesh, 7 villages in Orissa and 16 villages in Chhattisgarh.[75]

    In October 2005, the Central Government had granted “forest and environmental clearance” to Polavaram project.[76] The Union Ministry of Environment and Forests had admitted that about 1,93,350 persons would be displaced in three States - Andhra Pradesh (1,75,275), Orissa (6,316) and Chhattisgarh (1,766).[77] Of these, majority of the displaced persons were tribals.

    The tribals also continued to oppose the proposed bauxite mining in the Scheduled Areas of Visakhapatnam district and demanded cancellation of the Memorandum of Understanding signed between the State Government and the Jindal Group of companies for the same.[78] On 23 January 2006, Centre of Indian Trade Unions State Vice-President, Ms S. Punyavathi, following a week-long tour in the Agency areas of Visakhapatnam, stated that approximately 80,000 tribals would be displaced due to the bauxite mining.[79]

    8. Violations of the rights of the child

    According to official figures, there were 4,23,714 out of school children in Andhra Pradesh as of 31 May 2006.[80] According to the NHRC, there were an estimated 13 lakh child labourers in the State, which was the highest in the country. On 23 February 2006, NHRC member, Y Bhaskara Rao expressed concern at the slow pace of abolition of bonded labour and elimination of child labour in the State and directed the State Government to take steps in this regard.[81]

    There were four Juvenile Homes for boys functioning in Hyderabad, Eluru, Visakhapatnam and Kadapa.[82]

    On 23 January 2006, a juvenile identified as Keshav was hospitalised in Kadapa for injuries caused due to corporal punishment by the staff at the juvenile home at Kadapa. According to Keshav, ill-treatment of children was  common at the juvenile home.[83]

    9. Special Focus: Farmers' suicides

    In April 2006, the State Government admitted that 1,261 farmers died between 14 May  2004 (the day the Congress party came to power in the State) and 31 March 2006. The highest number of farmers' suicides was reported from Karimnagar district (148), followed by Kurnool (107), Nalgonda (106), Anantapur (100), Mahbubnagar (92), Ranga Reddy (91), Medak (88); Adilabad (84), Nizamabad (72), Warangal (63), Khammam (63), Guntur (60), Prakasam (52), Chittoor (48), Krishna (27) and Kadapa (15). On the other hand, the Opposition Telugu Desam Party put the death toll of farmers during the same period at 3,056.[84]

    The official number of suicidal deaths by farmers during the seven years of Telugu Desam Party rule was 1,490. However, unofficial sources put the figure at about 4,000.[85]

    Crop failure, high debts, threats from the banks and private money lenders force farmers to commit suicides. According to official figures, the outstanding agricultural loans given to farmers by all banks by December 2005 was Rs 24,577 crores. But this was about 20 per cent of the requirement for the one crore farmers.[86]

    In its report submitted to the State Government on 11 December 2005, Justice L Ramachenna Reddy Commission[87] blamed the policies of the previous Telugu Desam Party government led by Chandrababu Naidu for the large number of suicide by farmers in the State. The judicial commission observed that “The TDP government failed to strengthen the agricultural credit delivery system, agricultural extension advisory system and quality input delivery system to small and marginal farmers. The TDP government had paid compensation to families of suicide victims only for seven months. It stopped paying compensation to kin of the deceased farmers as it was wrongly felt that any relief measure would only cause more distressed farmers to commit suicide”. However, the Commission also found 1,027 genuine cases of suicide by farmers after the Congress came to power in the State in May 2004.[88]

    On 10 April 2006, Union Agriculture Minister Sharad Pawar stated that Karnataka registered 5,910 suicides by farmers, followed by Andhra Pradesh (1,835), Maharashtra (981) and Kerala (201) during the five years from 2001-2002 to 2005-2006.[89]

    On 29 September 2006, the Central Cabinet cleared a Rs 16,978 crore rehabilitation  package to help the farmers in 31 backward districts of four states - Maharashtra (6 districts), Andhra Pradesh (16 districts), Karnataka (6 districts) and Kerala (3 districts). Under the package which  would be implemented over a period of three years, Andhra Pradesh would be allocated Rs 9,650 crore, while Kerala, Karnataka and Maharashtra would get Rs 765 crore, Rs 2,689 crore and  Rs 3,873 crore respectively.[90] 

    [1]. AP extends ban on Naxalites, The Hitavada, 12 August 2006 

    [2]. Maoists feel Andhra heat- Cops log impressive series of successes over 18 months, The Telegraph, 26 July 2006

    [3]. Judicial probe into A.P. encounter ruled out, The Hindu, 25 July 2006

    [4]. Judicial probe into A.P. encounter ruled out, The Hindu, 25 July 2006

    [5]. Judicial probe into A.P. encounter ruled out, The Hindu, 25 July 2006

    [6]. Tribal battalion opposed, The Hindu, 31 August 2006

    [7]. Except in Chhattisgarh, naxal menace under check, The Hindu, 1 April 2006

    [8]. Police seizes Naxal cache of 600 rockets, 27 launchers, The Deccan Chronicle, 9 September 2006

    [9]. Cop rapes woman in police station, The Deccan Chronicle, 31 December 2006

    [10]. Cops assault TOI journalist for having tea, The Times of India, 24 March 2006

    [11]. 12 arrested for attacks on missionaries, The Deccan Chronicle, 16 January 2006

    [12]. Court news, October-December 2006, Supreme Court of India

    [13]. Maoists feel Andhra heat- Cops log impressive series of successes over 18 months, The Telegraph, 26 July 2006

    [14]. Judicial probe into A.P. encounter ruled out, The Hindu, 25 July 2006

    [15]. Judicial probe into A.P. encounter ruled out, The Hindu, 25 July 2006

    [16]. TDP seeks probe into encounter killings, The Hindu, 24 July 2006 

    [17]. Judicial probe into A.P. encounter ruled out, The Hindu, 25 July 2006

    [18]. Maoists' bodies still with police, The Deccan Chronicle, 26 July 2006

    [19]. Top Maoist killed in Vizag encounter, The Pioneer, 29 December 2006

    [20]. Maoist leader killed in Andhra Pradesh, The Deccan Herald, 29 December 2006 

    [21]. Maoist killed in exchange of fire, The Hindu, 4 July 2006

    [22]. Naxal killed, Rs. 25 lakhs seized, The Hindu, 17 July 2006

    [23]. 6 Maoists killed in encounters, The Hindu, 16 September 2006 

    [24]. Top Maoist killed in encounter, The Hindu, 19 September 2006

    [25]. Top Maoist leader gunned down in Anantapur, The Hindu, 7 October 2006 

    [26]. Senior Maoist leader killed, The Deccan Chronicle, 8 October 2006 

    [27]. Nine Maoists gunned down, The Hindu, 11 November 2006

    [28]. Arms expert Maoist killed, The Deccan Chronicle, 25 November 2006

    [29]. 3 naxals killed in encounter, The Hindu, 9 December 2006

    [30]. Police kill two in crossfire, The Deccan Chronicle, 9 April 2006 

    [31]. State orders probe into police firing, The Deccan Chronicle, 10 April 2006

    [32]. Firing kills anti-port protestor, The Deccan Chronicle, 28 March 2006

    [33]. Hooch maker dies in custody, The Deccan Chronicle, 16 January 2006

    [34]. Doubts over lock-up death in A.P. town, The Hindu, 8 March 2006

    [35]. Custodial death in Gajwel police station, The Hindu, 10 June 2006, http://www.hindu.com/2006/06/10/stories/2006061013760400.htm

    [36]. Custodial death of financier alleged, The Hindu, 26 July 2006, http://www.hindu.com/2006/07/26/stories/2006072623920100.htm

    [37]. SHRC petitioned for torture, The Deccan Chronicle, 31 March 2006

    [38]. Man alleges police torture, The Deccan Chronicle, 8 June 2006 

    [39]. Custodial death 12 get 10-yr jail term for custodial death, The Deccan Chronicle, 4 July 2006

    [40]. Maoists put a prize on top Andhra heads, The Telegraph, 12 August 2006 

    [41]. Teenagers killed in Andhra, The Telegraph, 21 March 2006 

    [42]. Ex-Naxalite shot dead by Maoists, Newindpress.com, 13 July 2006 

    [43]. Naxals hack one to death, Deccan Chronicle, 28 August 2006 

    [44]. Ex-naxal shot dead, The Hindu, 3 September 2006

    [45]. Maoists kill youth in A.P. , The Hindu, 9 September 2006

    [46]. Maoists kill ex-Naxal, Deccan Chronicle, 18 September 2006

    [47]. Maoists kill upa sarpanch, contractor in A.P., The Hindu, 13 October 2006 

    [48]. Maoists kill TDP leader in Andhra Pradesh, The Hindustan Times, 1 July 2006

    [49]. Congress worker killed by Naxalites in AP, Hindustan Times, 10 July 2006

    [50]. TRS leader shot dead by suspected naxals, The Hindu, 1 August 2006

    [51]. Naxals gun down Congress leader in A.P, The Hindu, 11 November 2006

    [52]. Maoists kill Bollapalli MPP chief, The Hindu, 25 November 2006

    [53]. Congress legislator kin killed, The Deccan Chronicle, 23 October 2006

    [54]. Maoists shot dead after tourist hijack scare in Andhra, The Telegraph, 1 May 2006

    [55]. Four naxals killed in encounter, The Hindu, 1 May 2006

    [56]. The kidnap and its aftermath, The Hindu, 24 June 2006, http://www.hindu.com/2006/06/24/stories/2006062404000200.htm

    [57]. Naxals extort 2-3% from contractors, The Times of India, 6 April 2006

    [58]. Parties ignore Maoist threats, The Deccan Chronicle, 26 June 2006

    [59]. Naxal threats dampen Agency poll campaign, The Deccan Chronicle, 30 June 2006

    [60]. AP Cobras hit Naxals with explosive revenge, The Asian Age, 6 May 2006 

    [61]. Cop rapes woman in police station, The Deccan Chronicle, 31 December 2006 

    [62]. Woman beaten for 'witchcraft', The Deccan Chronicle, 29 November 2006

    [63]. Woman termed witch, harassed, The Deccan Chronicle, 21 January 2006 

    [64]. 200 women missing in Andhra, The Asian Age, 28 October 2006

    [65]. Census of India 2001, http://www.censusindia.net/t_00_005.html

    [66]. Dalits boycotted over custom row, The Deccan Chronicle, 4 January 2006

    [67]. Dalits beaten up in Karimnagar, The Hindu, 8 February 2006

    [68]. http://www.censusindia.net/t_00_005.html

    [69]. Tribals held for Naxal link, The Deccan Chronicle, 22 January 2006

    [70]. Tribal land occupied, The Deccan Chronicle, 22 March 2006

    [71]. Justice at last - A new programme helps AP tribals recover lost land, The Tribune, 11 July 2006

    [72]. Tribals lose land battle, The Deccan Chronicle, 30 June 2006

    [73]. Justice at last - A new programme helps AP tribals recover lost land, The Tribune, 11 July 2006

    [74]. 150-ft height for Polavaram dam, The Hindu, 25 January 2006, http://www.hindu.com/2006/01/25/stories/2006012524000100.htm

    [75]. Tribals move apex court on Polavaram, The Deccan Chronicle, 10 April 2006 

    [76]. Polavaram project gets clearance, The Hindu, 2 October 2005 

    [77]. State Pulse: AP: Dam to displace hundreds, The Central Chronicle, 14 December 2005 

    [78]. Tribals protest against bauxite mining in agency, The Hindu, 31 May 2006 

    [79]. Bauxite mines will spell doom for tribals: Citu, The Deccan Chronicle, 24 January 2006 

    [80]. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Andhra Pradesh, "Achievements from 30th Nov, 2005 to 31st May, 2006" available at http://ssa.ap.nic.in/achievements.html

    [81]. NHRC expressed concern over bonded labour, The Andhranews.net, 24 February 2006 

    [82]. http://www.aponline.gov.in/apportal/departments/departments.asp?dep=32&org=209 

    [83]. Juvenile thrashed at home, The Deccan Chronicle, 25 January 2006 

    [84]. Andhra farmer suicides continue, The Asian Age, 10 April 2006

    [85]. Andhra farmer suicides continue, The Asian Age, 10 April 2006

    [86]. Andhra farmer suicides continue, The Asian Age, 10 April 2006 

    [87]. Inquiry commission blames TDP for farmers' suicides in AP, 12 December 2005, http://www.rediff.com/news/2005/dec/12tdp.htm

    [88]. Inquiry commission blames TDP for farmers' suicides in AP, 12 December 2005, http://www.rediff.com/news/2005/dec/12tdp.htm

    [89]. Package to prevent suicide by farmers, The Hindu, 11 April 2006

    [90]. Cabinet okays Rs 16,978-cr package for farmers, The Times of India, 30 September 2006

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