• Jammu and Kashmir

    I. Overview. 1

    II. Human rights violations by the security forces 2

    a. Enforced disappearances 2

    b. Violations of the right to life. 3

    i. Custodial killings 3

    ii. Extrajudicial executions 4

    c. Arbitrary arrest, illegal detention and torture. 5

    d. Impunity 6

    III. The status of SHRC. 7

    IV. Violations of the rights of indigenous peoples 7

    V. Violence against women. 8

    VI. Violations of the rights of the child. 9

    VII. Status of internally displaced persons and refugees 10

    VIII. Violations of the prisoners’ rights 11

    IX. Violations of International Humanitarian Law by the AOGs 11



    I. Overview


    Ruled by the Indian National Congress-People's Democratic Party coalition, Jammu and Kashmir continued to be afflicted by armed conflict and human rights violations by both the security forces and armed opposition groups (AOGs). According to Union Home Ministry, at least 33 AOGs were operating in Jammu and Kashmir.


    According to estimates of the State government 42,147 persons have been killed in the violence in Jammu and Kashmir up to the period February 2007. These included 20,647 militants, 5,024 security personnel and 11,221 civilians.


    Human rights and civil society groups however put the figures at more than 80,000 killed since 1989. As per the fact-sheet, 18,600 persons have been arrested during anti-militant operations but the majorityhave been released on court orders, recommendations of screening committees or human rights cells. As of March 2007, about 365 people were still in judicial custody. In addition, 497 people were detained under the Public Safety Act. While 413 were in state jails, 84 were under detention in jails outside the state.


    The government claimed that it had ordered investigation into 79 cases of human rights abuse perpetrated by security forces in the period 1990 to March 2007. Out of these only 35 enquiry committees had submitted their reports.  44 were pending. The findings of these inquiries too were not made public. Even the few cases that were investigated by the State Human Rights Commission rely on official reports and made little visible impact as the directions of the Commission are not implemented by the authorities.


    AOGs were responsible for violations of international humanitarian laws including torture, kidnapping and killings.


    Women and children remained extremely vulnerable to violence, rape and molestation by both sides.


    Jammu and Kashmir was subject to judicial delay. As of 1 January 2008, there were five vacancies of judges in the Jammu and Kashmir High Court. There were also 26 vacancies of judges in the state’s district and subordinate courts as of 30 September 2007. A total of 45,374 cases were pending in the High Court while 1,62,741 cases were pending in the district and subordinate courts as of 30 September 2007.



    II. Human rights violations by the security forces


    Jammu and Kashmir continued to witness serious human rights violations. The  Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) led by Yasin Malik claimed that the human rights situation deteriorated in Jammu and Kashmir and that as many as 677 civilians have been killed, including 44 persons in  security forces custody from December 2006 to November 2007. It also claimed that about 70 women raped and molested by the armed forces. The claims could not be independently verified.


    According to the Ministry of Home Affairs, 1,158 complaints of human rights violations were received against Army personnel and the Central Para Military Forces from January 1994 to December 2007. 1,118 were investigated and 1,085 have been found to be false. In 33 cases penalties were imposed on 62 personnel of the Army and the Central Para Military Forces. In 6 cases compensation was awarded.  However, the names of those punished have not been made public. The figures lack transparency and this seriously weakens their credibility.


    Justice MY Kawoosa, Chairman of the State Human Rights Commission stated that it had received at least 3,600 cases and 2,500 cases were disposed off.

    a. Enforced disappearances


    Hundreds of people have disappeared in Jammu and Kashmir since the internal armed conflict began in 1990. On 25 March 2003, the Minister for Law and Finance of Jammu and Kashmir, Mr Muzaffar Hussain Beig stated in the State Assembly that a total of 3,744 persons had disappeared in the State from 1990 to December 2002 and 135 of them had been declared dead up to June 2002. However, the Association of Parents of Disappeared Persons (APDP) put the number of missing persons in Kashmir at over 10,000.


    Many of those disappeared have been killed in security force custody. The National Human Rights Commission registered only one case of death in the custody of Defence and Paramilitary Forces in Jammu and Kashmir during 1 April 2006 - 31 March 2007.

    b. Violations of the right to life

    i. Custodial killings


    Security forces were responsible for custodial killings. The State Human Rights Commission (SHRC) registered 19 custodial deaths from May to July 2007; 42 custodial disappearances from April to July 2007 and 29 cases of harassment by security forces from April to July 2007. These records pertain only to Kashmir division and that too from the areas where people have access and are willing to risk documenting a case with the SHRC office; these figures must be seen against a context where the SHRC has failed to demonstrate an ability to realize justice.



    On 14 February 2007, Shoukat Ali was allegedly tortured to death in Rajouri police station. He was arrested on charges of theft on 13 February 2007. Shoukat Ahmad, Station House Officer (SHO) of the police station, and head constable Gain Chand were suspended in connection with the case.

    On 20 February 2007, the Jammu and Kashmir State Human Rights Commission ordered a probe into the custodial killing of a youth named Tarsem Lal of Mandal Phalian village under Satwari police station, near Jammu on 17 February 2007 and asked the Inspector-General of Police, Jammu Range, and the Deputy Commissioner to submit the report in four weeks. Four police personnel have been suspended and arrested. The state government also announced compensation of Rs 1,00,000 for the family deceased and a magisterial inquiry.


    On 2 April 2007, Ladakh Scout Jawan, Havildar Tsering Tondup, resident of Liker village, was found hanging at Housing Colony police lock up in Leh, Jammu and Kashmir. However, the Ladakh Buddhist Association alleged that the death was not suicide as claimed by police.


    On 24 April 2007, Rishi Kumar, son of Fallail Singh of Dhoki Charala died in custody at Karara police post under the jurisdiction of Thathri police station in Doda district. Singh was arrested along with five other persons - his sister Ujala Devi and his father Fallail Singh, Indira Devi, wife of Madan Lal, Partap Singh, son of Sansar Chand and Sandeep Kumar, son of Thakur Lal in connection with the murder of Madan Lal, who was Rishi Kumar’s step brother. During interrogation Rishi Kumar was severely beaten. He was transferred to Thathri hospital on 21 April 2007 and then referred to Government Medical College Hospital in Jammu on 22 April 2007. He died in the hospital 23 April 2007. The deceased’s sister Ujala Devi was also raped by Sub Inspector Irfan Wani, in-charge of Karara police post. Following a complaint by the victim, Mr Wani was suspended and two separate inquiries have been ordered against him: a magisterial inquiry into the killing of Rishi Kumar and a departmental inquiry into rape charges.


    On 8 May 2007, Abdul Rasheed, son of Abdul Rehman of Morah Daraj, allegedly committed suicide by slitting his throat at Buddal police station in Rajouri after being arrested on the charge of murder. However, protestors alleged that Rehman was killed in police custody.


    On 9 June 2007, Gurnam Singh (25), resident of Jandrah village on the India-Pakistan border in Ramgarh area, allegedly committed suicide by hanging himself from a ceiling fan in Ramgarh police station near Jammu.


    On 29 January 2007, a local court in Jammu framed charges against four police personnel identfied as Assistant Sub Inspector Gulzar Ahmed and constables Roshan Dutta, Harbans Lal and Pishori Lal for their involvement in the custodial death of a youth named Rakesh Kumar in Jammu city in 1997. The deceased was arrested on 10 June 1997. He was transferred to Sainik Colony police post for interrogation. Later he died in District Hospital, Gandhi Nagar. The post-mortem report revealed that he had multiple injuries almost all over his body.

    ii. Extrajudicial executions


    The security forces were responsible for killing of civilians in fake encounters.


    On 25 January 2007, labourer Mohammad Yaqoob Mir (21), resident of Abi Nowpora, was allegedly killed by members of the 52nd Rashtriya Rifles at Kralapora-Pattan after being picked up on 21 January 2007. The security forces claimed that he was a militant and that some arms and ammunition were recovered from him.


    On 20 April 2007, Ms Fazi (65), widow of Abdul Razaq Magray, was allegedly killed by security forces personnel while she was collecting firewood at Kandi in Kupwara district. The army claimed that the elderly woman was killed during a gunfight between militants and security forces.


    On 19 October 2007, a teacher identified as Abdul Rashid Mir, son of Ghulam Ahmad Mir of Rawalthpora, was tortured and later shot dead in army custody of the 46th AD Regiment at Marsari Chowkibal in Kupwara district. The post-mortem report confirmed the death due to torture and bullet injuries.


    On 17 November 2007, Riyaz Ahmed Sofi (28), a civilian, was allegedly killed by personnel of 9th Rashtriya Rifles while he and his brothers were on way to their shop at Damhal Hanjipora village in Kulgam district. The army claimed that he was killed in a cross-fire with the militants.


    In addition to alleged fake encounters, many civilians were killed in indiscriminate shootings by the police and army.


    On 15 December 2007, a labourer identified as Ghulam Mohammad Lone (18), resident of Sonmullah, was killed when SOG personnel opened fire on civilians at Kukroosa in Kupwara district. 


    Allegations of the use of civilians as human shields by the security forces in encounters continued. In February 2007, one Nazir Ahmad Shah was allegedly used as a human shield and was killed in an encounter in Shopian in South Kashmir. The security forces stated that the deceased was killed during an encounter with an armed opposition group.

    c. Arbitrary arrest, illegal detention and torture


    Civilians were often killed by security forces as retribution for killings of security forces. On 23 January 2007, CRPF personnel reportedly torched three houses at Panzgam village near Awantipora in Pulwama district following an Improvised Explosive Device blast on a vehicle, carrying CRPF personnel which killed three personnel and injured five others.


    On 23 February 2007, watchman Kewal Ram (42), resident of Lane number 11 Gurah Keran on Barnai-Bantalab road and working as Chowkidar of Jammu & Kashmir Co-operative Housing Corporation at Mishriwalla in the outskirts of Jammu, allegedly died of injuries after being beaten up by police including Assistant Sub Inspector (ASI) Lal Chand of Police Station Gharota for not obeying him.


    On the night of 6 March 2007, three innocent villagers identified as Mohammad Sadiq, son of Noor Mohammad, Mushtaq Ahmed, son of Ghulam Hassan and Abdul Aziz, son of Mohammad Shafi, all residents of Bufliaz Surankot, were allegedly illegally detained and beaten throughout the night after being picked up by the Special Operation Group (SOG) team headed by Sub Inspector Paramjeet Singh from their relative's house at Kasotie Gursai at Harni in Medhar.


    On 14 May 2007, Tabassum Noor of Paneer-Jageer Tral, a class X student of Government High School Mandoora Tral, was seriously injured after allegedly ruthlessly beaten up on the head and on back with their rifle butts by CRPF troops while she was on way to school in Mandoora Tral.  

    d. Impunity


    The Jammu and Kashmir Disturbed Areas Act; and Armed Forces (Jammu and Kashmir) Special Powers Act of 1990 provide impunity to the security forces. Under Section 6 of the Armed Forces (Jammu and Kashmir) Special Powers Act of 1990, no legal proceeding can be brought against any member of the armed forces without the permission from Central Government.


    Following increasing protest against fake encounter killings of civilians, in April 2007, the Jammu and Kashmir government appointed a one-member commission of inquiry consisting of Justice M.L. Koul, a retired judge of the Jammu and Kashmir High Court, to probe fake encounters. The terms of reference of the commission included determining responsibility for such killings and to recommend measures to prevent further. The commission has been asked to submit its report within three months.


    Recommendations by earlier commissions set up by the government to investigate similar extrajudicial killings have not been implemented. For example, no action was taken in the case of killing of Abdul Majeed, a resident of Tangmarg, by an army major identified as K. Bhattacharya in January 2001. Despite the submission of the status report of the Deputy Inspector General (DIG) of Police, North Kashmir Range, M. S Lone before the High Court that Major K. Bhattacharya had killed Abdul Majeed, no step was taken to bring the accused officer to trial.


    The status report described the sequence of events. It stated that on 9 January 2001 a written complaint was lodged by Haneefa Begum Wife of Late Ghulam Mohammad Khan, resident of Khaipora, Tangmarg at Police Station Tangmarg against the officers / officials of the army posted at Sagree-Batapora. In her complaint, Haneefa alleged that the army personnel then camped at Sagree Batapora detained Abdul Majeed Khan, from her residence for questioning on 8 January 2001. The next day his body was found in a canal. The complainant alleged that the body of the deceased bore wounds consistent with torture and that he was killed during interrogation. The status report quoted the autopsy report that stated that the death of the deceased was caused by excessive internal bleeding in the abdomen and spleen rupture.


    Similarly, an investigation into the custodial killing of Sonaullah Malik, son of Ghulam Qadir Malik, res­ident of Zilndfaran at Zum­Zumpora in Baramulla, revealed that he was innocent and extra judicially killed in 1995. According to State Human Rights Commission report, a full investigation of the case was conducted and it concluded that this was a clear custodial killing perpetrated by Major Chinapa, Major Acharya and CHM Mohammed Aslam of 28 RR. The SHRC had not received an appropriate response within the time frame of this report.



    III. The status of SHRC


    The Jammu and Kashmir State Human Rights Commission (SHRC) remained ineffective, largely as a failure of due to state government’s apathy.


    The state government claimed to have implemented 390 out of total 650 recommendations made by the State Human Rights Commission while another 260 were under consideration during 2007. A Cabinet sub-committee was formed to monitor implementation. On 29 November 2007, the Cabinet Sub Committee stated that not all recommendations received by the government were related to cases of human rights violations. Some recommendations pertained to purely administrative nature. In a letter dated 26 November 2007 to the SHRC, the state government also claimed that more than 59 per cent of the Commission’s recommendations from 1997 to September 2007 have been fulfilled and many more were in the process of implementation.


    However, in its Annual Report 2005-2006, the SHRC pointed out that the government first forwarded the Commission’s recommendations to the concerned District Commissioner for verification which effectively made the Commission’s findings redundant. The government’s action on cases was effectively to subject the case to further inappropriate scrutiny. The SHRC enjoys quasi judicial powers and its recommendation can only be subject to judicial review.


    The government also failed to submit Action Taken Report to the Commission under sub-section 5 of section 19 of the Jammu and Kashmir Protection of Human Rights Act, 1997. In addition the SHRC also suffered from inadequate staffing, office space building and financial independence.


    IV. Violations of the rights of indigenous peoples


    In August 2007, the J&K High Court asked the Government of India to consider the case of Pahari speaking people of the state, who have demanded to be granted Scheduled Tribe (ST) status. The court gave the directions on a writ petition filed by Noor Mohammad Quereshi of Karnah in 2001.


    On 30 July 2007, at the 31st meeting of the State Advisory Board for Development of Gujjar and Bakerwals, Chief Minister Ghulam Nabi Azad approved the creation of a separate directorate for tribal affairs in Jammu & Kashmir. He also announced up-grading of 100 primary schools located in Gujjar and Bakerwal populated areas in the state. This follows persistent demand of members of the Board for establishment of a separate tribal directorate in the state to monitor works taken up under Tribal Sub-Plan, special central assistance and Article 275 (i) of the Indian Constitution under which special assistance for tribals is received by the state.


    V. Violence against women


    The Jammu and Kashmir State Commission for Women constituted in 1999 has been without a chairperson and two members since 2003. The commission enjoys powers of civil court. But the state government failed to enact legislation in accordance to the Central Commission for Women Act.


    The security forces operating in Kashmir valley subjected to regular rape and molestation allegations. According to official statistics, the annual rate of rape was 250 in Jammu and Kashmir. On average there were 950 molestation cases every year in J& K.


    On the night of 13 February 2007, a girl was allegedly gang raped by constable Imtiyaz along with his friends in a hotel in Poonch district.


    In March 2007, a woman identified as Sammena Akhtar, wife of Mohammad Amin, was allegedly molested by a soldier identified as Constable Bhoom Kumar who was on patrol duty at Aadorah Nelo in Budgam.


    On the night of 15 April 2007, three army jawans identified as Mukesh Kumar of 40 Rajputan Rifles and Khursheed and Mohammad Shakeel of 156 Territorial Army reportedly attempted to molest a woman and her daughter inside their house in Rajouri. Mukesh Kumar was arrested after being caught by the locals while the two others managed to escape.


    On 23 May 2007, a 24-year-old girl, daughter of Ghulam Muhammad Sheik was allegedly molested by soldiers of 21 Rastriya Rifles who entered her house while carrying out searches at Takibal Chougal village in Handwara.


    On 26 June 2007, two jawans identified as Major Joginder Singh and Naik Daljeet Singh posing as militants forcibly entered the house of Mohammad Rafiq Gujjar and allegedly attempted to rape his 17-year-old daughter Zarina at Kunan-Gujjarpati in Bandipora district. Both the accused were caught by the villagers and smeared with black paint on their faces and paraded naked.



    On 20 July 2007, a woman was allegedly raped by two Constables identified as Mohammad Shabir of Darhal and Mohammad Awaas of Thannamandi and was repeatedly raped over night in a room of one of the constables at Ward number 4 in Rajouri district.


    On 19 August 2007, a 17-year-old girl was allegedly raped by Jawan Ajay Kumar of 27th Rastriya Rifles in Daskal village in Akhnoor tehsil of Jammu district.

    On 21 July 2007, the State chief minister Ghulam Nabi Azad claimed in the state assembly that security forces were involved in only 4 percent of rape cases and 3- 4 percent of molestation cases in the state.


    On 13 April 2007, a woman, sister of custodial death victim Rishi Kumar, was allegedly kept in illegal police custody for three days and raped by the police when she had gone to the police post to enquire about his brother.


    There have been some interventions in the cases of violence against women.


    In June 2007, Jammu and Kashmir State Human Rights Commission ordered a probe and recommended Rs 75,000 relief to a deaf and dumb woman allegedly gang raped by security personnel in Kupwara district 14 years ago.


    On 5 November 2007, the Army claimed to have court-martialed and awarded punishment including reduction of rank to two jawans for the molestation of a girl of Kunan Baba Gund village in Bandipore district on 26 June 2007.


    On the of 7 June 2007, wife of Qadeer, was allegedly raped twice by Suram Singh, Deputy Superintendent of Police (DSP) of Poonch after gagging her in his room at the police station while she was being detained with her husband for interrogation. The woman was allegedly raped by a friend of the DSP who was also present.


    VI. Violations of the rights of the child


    The Tribal Research and Cultural Foundation stated that 74 % per cent of Gujjar children between the ages of 7 to 15 were engaged in physical labour and were being exploited in Jammu and Kashmir. The national literacy mission launched by the government in 1988 with the objective of all-round development of poor children in India had failed to touch the Gujjar tribe.



    VII. Status of internally displaced persons and refugees


    The government of India and the State government of Jammu and Kashmir regularly announced schemes to encourage the return of the displaced Kashmiri Pandits but the majority remained concerned by security. According to the 2007-2008 Annual Report of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), there are still 55,456 Kashmiri Pandit families who had been displaced by the conflict. Of these, 34,878 families are in Jammu, 19,338 families are in Delhi and 1,240 families are in other States and Union Territories.


    According to information obtained by Asian Centre for Human Rights, the State Governments of Jammu and Kashmir and Delhi have been providing basic dry rations to the Kashmiri Pandits and cash relief of Rs 1,000/- per head per month (subject to a maximum of Rs 4,000/- per family per month) in both the Jammu and Delhi relief camps.

    According to official sources, 6000 Pandits are still living in valley. They had been living in shanty cluster colonies. 

    While the case of displaced Kashmiri Pandits is  widely debated, the case of 1600 Muslim and 1656 Sikh registered families who had to migrate from the Kashmir valley in 1990s due to insecurity has been ignored. The Muslim migrants felt threatened on account of their political beliefs.


    On 31 January 2007, the Jammu and Kashmir Government stated in the Legislative Council that the migrants uprooted from the Doda, Rajouri, Poonch and Udhampur border areas of Jammu division would be treated on a par with Kashmiri Pandits. Nearly 20,000 families were displaced from these areas due to cross border military action.  . However, no action was taken.

    In addition, there are over 1.2 million refugees who had crossed over to India during the partition in 1947 from Pakistan Administered Kashmir have been denied rights and citizenship as they were not from Jammu and Kashmir. They have been living in miserable conditions in refugees’ settlements in and around Jammu including in over 34 camps in Jammu and RS Pura tehsils in Jammu district and in border areas of Kathua-Jammu border belt. For the first time, Chief Minister Mr Ghulam Nabi Azad set up a committee to look into the grievances of these refugees but no action was taken.


    VIII. Violations of the prisoners’ rights


    The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is given access only in Jammu and Kashmir. The ICRC carries out visits to persons held in relation to the situation in Jammu and Kashmir and submits confidential reports on its findings to the Indian authorities on the basis of a Memorandum of Understanding signed in 1995. In mid-2007, ICRC raised the issue of the living conditions and the treatment of Kashmiri prisoners lodged in various jails across the country with the Central government.


    There were hundreds of prisoners detained in jails denied legal representation. Some of them have been detained for the last 17 years. Those detained for two years under the detention laws were rearrested and detained again within the jail premises before they were set free. There were regular instances where the authorities have defied court orders.


    Even Supreme Court directives have been defied. In March 2007, the Supreme Court summoned the Home Secretaries of twelve states including Jammu and Kashmir on 24 April 2007 to explain the non-compliance of its earlier order seeking replies regarding thousands of prisoners in jails without trial.


    In May 2007, Ghulam Mohiuddin, resident of Tangmarg in Baramulla district, had allegedly gone missing from Udhampur jail. On 29 June 2007, the State Human Rights Commission directed the Director General of Prisons to file a detailed factual report on the whereabouts of Mohiuddin. On 5 May 2007, the Jammu and Kashmir High Court ordered his release from jail.


    IX. Violations of International Humanitarian Law by the AOGs


    Armed opposition groups (AOGs) were responsible for violations of international humanitarian laws, including killings, kidnapping etc. The AOGs were also responsible for “selective killings” of non-Kashmiris or members of the minority communities. Political party workers were specifically targeted.


    On 1 April 2007, Congress leader Azhar Mohammad alias Jan Mohammad Kakroo was shot dead and his security guard seriously injured by unidentified gunmen in Baramulla town in North Kashmir. A militant outfit "Shohda Brigade (Martyr's Brigade) claimed responsibility for the attack.


    In July 2007, one Devraj and his 9-year-old daughter Manjoo Devi were killed when suspected AOG members entered the house of Village Defence Committee member Mukesh Kumar’s house and opened fire on Dalhal village in Doda district.


    On 14 November 2007, Ghulam Nabi Wani, National Conference Councilor, was shot dead by suspected Lashkar-e-Al Fajr cadres outside Khanyar shrine in Srinagar.

    AOGs were responsible for indiscriminate use of explosive devices. On 29 July 2007, six persons including four tourists from Gujarat and two local women were killed and 19 others were injured in an alleged AOG-triggered blast inside a bus near the Shalimar Gardens in Srinagar.


    AOGs often issued threats to villagers who have members of their family in the security forces. They warn civilians not to participate in the Independence Day celebrations.


    On 16 August 2007, alleged members Hizbul Mujahideen reportedly kidnapped Mahammad Rasheed, brother of Territorial Army soldier Muhammad Rafiq, and later killed him by slitting his throat at Pangaber Dhok in Kotranka block in Rajouri district.


    On 18 August 2007, Muhammad Afsar (70), father of police constable Muhammad Hanief, was reportedly killed by unidentified members of AOGs at Dakhan Wali Dhok in the Kandi area in Rajouri district. 


    Minorities were specifically targeted by the AOGs. On 29 March 2007, five Hindu labourers were killed and four others injured when two suspected members of AOG attacked a shelter at Mathiani village in Rajouri district. The labourers were allegedly segregated based on their religion. After rounding up 11 Hindu labourers, the attackers opened fire, killing five of them. The deceased were identified as Sanjay Kumar (21), Chaman Lal (32), Mohinder Kumar (28), Baldeve Kumar (38) and Rachpaul Singh (26).


    1.     Plea against rehab package for surrendered militants, The Tribune, 26 January 2007

    2.     Killings and alienation - Questions over official figures about the victim, The Kashmir Times, 29 March 2007

    3.      42,000 killed in J-K since 1989’, The Indian Express, 27 March 2007

    4.     Probing HR abuses cases - Need to set up high-power independent Commission, The Kashmir Times, 6 March 2007

    5.     Panel for women sans chief for four years, The Tribune, 22 February 2007

    6.      Supreme Court of India, Court News, October – December 2007

    7.      Human rights abuses: JKLF shoots letter to UN chief, The Tribune, 11 December 2007

    8.      Annual Report 2007-08, Ministry of Home Affairs

    9.     HT EXCLUSIVE - Just 32 rights violations in J &K in 12 years, claims gov - Rights watchdog stunned, says he has received 3,600 complaints, The Kashmir Times, 11 May 2007

    10.   Rights panel to probe cases of missing persons, The Tribune, 26 March 2003, http://www.tribuneindia.com/2003/20030326/j&k.htm#3 

    11.   Police starts compiling data of missing persons, The Tribune, 15 February 2007

    12.   Information obtained by ACHR from NHRC through RTI application

    13.    42 disappearances, 19 custodial - deaths prove govt claims fake, The Kashmir Times, 19 August 2007

    14.    Another custodial death in J&K, cops suspended, The Times of India, 14 February 2007

    15.   Rights panel orders probe into custodial death, The Tribue, 21 February 2007, available at  http://www.tribuneindia.com/2007/20070221/j&k.htm#3

    16.    Bandh in Leh over alleged custodial death, The Kashmir Times, 5 April 2007

    17.   Brother murdered, sister raped in police lock-up, Daily Excelsior, 27 April 2007, available at http://www.dailyexcelsior.com/web1/07apr27/main.htm

    18.   Cops Suspended - Protests rock Budhal over custodial death, The Tribune, 10 May 2007

    19.   Police probes J&K jail suicide, The Asian Age, 11 June 2007

    20.   Custodial death: charges framed against 4 cops, The Tribune, 31 January 2007, available at http://www.tribuneindia.com/2007/20070131/j&k.htm#1

    21.   Protests in Srinagar over killing of Nowpora youth, The Kashmir Times, 27 January 2007

    22.   Protests continue in Kupwara over woman's killing, The Kashmir Times, 22 April 2007

    23.   Kupwara killing by army personnel - Teacher tortured before he was shot dead in custody, The Kashmir Times, 24 October 2007

    24.   Protests in J-K over civilian killing, Army faces murder case, The Indian Express, 18 November 2007

    25.   Handwara crisis - CRPF fires on protestors, 12 yr boy among 5 injured, The Kashmir Times, 17 December 2007

    26.   Two militants, one civilian killed in J&K, The Asian Age, 12 February 2007

    27.   CRPF to compensate for torching houses in Kashmir, The Kashmir Times, 27 January 2007

    28.    Man dies after police beating in Jammu suburb, The Kashmir Times, 24 February 2007

    29.   Protest in Mendhar after police beats up villagers, The Kashmir Times, 8 March 2007

    30.   CRPF men beat up Class X girl student, The Kashmir Times, 15 May 2007

    31.   Panel to probe fake encounters, The Tribune, 4 April 207, available at http://www.tribuneindia.com/2007/20070404/j&k.htm#4

    32.   Tangmarg custodial killing - Report nails army officer, process for trial yet to begin, The Kashmir Times, 19 January 2007

    33.   Custodial death proved but justice elusive, The Kashmir Times, 26 March 2007

    34.    JK: Militant violence dropped by 25 per cent in 2007, Rediff News, 15 January 2008 http://www.rediff.com/news/2008/jan/15jk2.htm

    35.   Cabinet Sub Committee on HR  - reviews SHRC recommendations, The Kashmir Times, 30 November 2007

    36.   Comply with direction, says rights panel, The  Tribune, 11 December 2007

    37.   SHRC annual report highlights its helplessness, The Kashmir Times, 15 February 2007

    38.   HC to Centre Consider ST status for Paharis, The Kashmir Times, 21 August 2007

    39.    CM announces separate directorate for tribal affairs, The Kashmir Times, 1 August 2007

    40.   Panel for women sans chief for four years, The Tribune, 22 February 2007

    41.   Molestation & rape cases fewer in Kashmir, The Statesman, 23 July 2007

    42.   Cop, friends rape girl in J&K hotel, The Times of India, 14 February 2007

    43.   Soldier accused of molesting woman, The Kashmir Times, 30 March 2007

    44.    Jawan held for molestation, The Hindustan Times, 17 April 2007

    45.    Handwara villagers protest against molestation, The Kashmir Times, 23 May 2007

    46.    Protest against girl's molestation by armymen - 30 injured in police firing, teargassing, lathi-charge on protestors in Bandipora, The Kashmir Times, 28 June 2007

    47.   Rajouri rape case - Police arrests another cop, The Kashmir Times, 23 July 2007

    48.    Jawan in rape net, The Telegraph, 22 August 2007

    49.   Security forces involved in 4 pc rape, motestation cases: Azad, The Kashmir Times, 21 July 2007

    50.   Cops torture youth to death, ‘rape’ sister, The Tribune, 26 April 2007

    51.   Rs 75000 relief to gangrape victim, The Tribune, 5 June 2007

    52.   Molestation case: 2 jawans court-martialed, The Tribune, 6 November 2007

    53.    DySP accused of raping woman - SHRC refers case to Crime Branch, The Kashmir Times, 20 October 2007

    54.    “74 p.c. Gujjar kids engaged in child labour”, The Hindu, 15 November 2007

    55.    Pandits in Valley: Victims of miserable - living conditions, govt apathy, The Kashmir Times, 22 February 2007

    56.   Refugees in J and K - It must be accepted as a human problem, The Tribune, 20 June 2007

    57.  Jammu migrants to be compensated on a par with Kashmiri Pandits, The Tribune, 1 February 2007

    58.    No hope in sight for 12 lakh Jammu refugees, The Statesman, 20 June 2007

    59.   ICRC concern over plight of Kashmiri prisoners, The Kashmir Times, 4 July 2007

    60.   Languishing in jails - Warning to states defying SC directive, The Kashmir Times, 30 March 2007

    61.   Languishing in jails - Warning to states defying SC directive, The Kashmir Times, 30 March 2007

    62.   J&K SHRC asks DG Prisons to file report on missing farmer, The Kashmir Times, 30 June 2007

    63.   Cong leader shot dead in Baramulla, The Kashmir Times, 2 April 2007

    64.   Militants kill VDC member’s kin, The Tribune, 17 July 2007

    65.   Lull over, NC leader shot in Valley, The Indian Express, 15 November 2007

    66.   Tourists from Gujarat among six killed in blast inside bus in Srinagar, The Indian Express, 30 July 2007

    67.   Militants kill two villagers in Rajouri, The Tribune, 20 August 2007

    68.   Militants kill two villagers in Rajouri, The Tribune, 20 August 2007

    69.   5 labourers killed in J&K terror attack, The Times of India, 31 March 2007

    70.   Militants kill five labourers in Rajouri, The Indian Express, 31 March 2007   

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