Manipur continued to witness serious human rights violations during 2007. The claim of maintaining a “zero tolerance policy” on human rights violations by the security forces was not fulfilled. The armed forces carried out arbitrary arrest, torture and extrajudicial killings with impunity. The Central Government failed to implement the recommendations of the Committee to Review the Armed Forces Special Powers Act of 1958.
According to the 2007-2008 Annual Report of the Ministry of Home Affairs, 130 civilians and 39 security forces were killed in 2007 against the killing of 96 civilians and 28 security forces in 2006.
Armed opposition groups (AOGs) were responsible for gross violations of international humanitarian law, including killing and torture. AOGs targeted migrant labourers in 2007.
The press was under immense pressure from both the government and armed opposition groups. On 2 August 2007, Manipur government imposed restrictions on reporting of certain militancy-related activities. The order was issued under the provisions of Section 95 of the Criminal Procedure Code (Power to declare certain publications forfeited and to issue search warrants for the same).
delay continued to plague the system in Manipur. There were 4 vacancies out of
the sanctioned strength of 14 judges in the District and Subordinate Courts by
the year’s end. While a total of 6609 were pending during the same period of
The security forces were responsible for alleged extrajudicial killings of innocent civilians. However, the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) received no complaints of custodial deaths from Manipur during the year 2006-2007.
Both the State and Central security forces were responsible for the violation of the right to life. Those who were allegedly executed extrajudicially included:
- Nongmaithem Tomba alias Chinung (37) (son of Late N. Bashikhong Singh) of Kumbi Kangjeibung Mapal under Kumbi Nagar Panchayat Ward No. 4 in Bishnupur district was killed by the Assam Rifles on 24 April 2007,
- Athokpam Manja (47) (son of Late A. Nodiyachand) of Bashikhong Torbam Leikai under Irilbung Police Station in Imphal East district was killed by Rapid Action Police Forces of the Manipur Police Commando at Langol in Imphal West district after being kidnapped from his house on 29 April 2007;
- Mohammed Ali Saha (28) of Keirang Awang Leikai under Heingang Police Station in Imphal East district was killed by the 4th Assam Rifles stationed at Koirengei in Imphal East on 23 June 2007;
- Md. Ramesh (18) (son of Md. Shamirudin) of Keirang Mamang Leikai, and Nasir Hussain alias Isir (33) of Khomidok Jama Masajit Maning under Heingang police station in Imphal East district was killed by the 4th Assam Rifles stationed at Mantripukhri on 11 August 2007;
- Md Ayub Khan (about 29 years) (son of Md. Abdul Karimuddin) of Keirang Muslim Litan Makhong under Heingang Police Station in Imphal East district died in the custody of 19th Assam Rifles stationed at Litan in Ukhrul district on 30 August 2007;
- Md Razak Khan (15) of Lilong Leihaokhong was killed by the combined forces of Manipur Commandos and the personnel of the 32nd Assam Rifles at Leihaokhong Maru under Lilong Police Station in Thoubal district on 13 September 2007;
- Md Sabir Ahamad (16) (son of Md Salimuddin) of Irong Chesaba Idigha Leirak under Mayang Imphal in Thoubal district and a student of Class XI of The Little Master English Higher Secondary School, Shamurou was killed by the 22nd Maratha Light Infantry stationed at Mayang Imphal Chabung Company on the night of 14 October 2007;
- Khagenbam Ajao alias Ibungo (18) (son of Kumar) of Thoubal Athokpam was killed by 34th Assam Rifles near Leirongthel under Yairipok police station in Thoubal district on 22 January 2007;
- Henkhohao Singsit was killed by the 38th Assam Rifles at Khoken village under Saparmeina police station in Senapati district on 31 January 2007;
- Asangabm Shyamchand (27) was killed by Manipur Police commandos at Lamlai Bazar in Imphal East district on 8 February 2007;
- three youths identified as Sapam Brojen, Taorem Boba and Thangkhenmung were killed by Manipur Police commandos at Kwakeithel Heinoukhongnembi Leikai in Imphal West district on 6 April 2007; and
- Angom Brajamani Singh, resident of Phayeng in Imphal West district, was killed by Manipur Police personnel at Khoyathong on 18 November 2007.
In a rare case, the Imphal Bench of
Gauhati High Court on 11 July 2007 directed the 8th Assam Rifles to
pay Rs 3.5 lakh to the family of Athokpam Purnima Singh of Kha Naorem Leikai in
Imphal East district of Manipur who was killed in the custody of the 8th Assam Rifles on 1 September 2001.
Arbitrary arrest, illegal arrest and torture were common in Manipur. Yet, the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) received only 1 case of illegal arrest, 1 case of unlawful detention and 1 case of other police excesses in Manipur during the period of 1 April 2006 to 31 March 2007.
However, Asian Centre for Human Rights documented several cases of arbitrary arrest, illegal detention and torture by the security forces in 2007.
Soraisham Gopeshor Singh (about 42 years) (son of late Soraisham Hera Singh) of Kodompokpi Maning Leikai under Namboi police station in Imphal West district was tortured in the custody of 22nd Maratha Light Infantry and 57th Mountain Division.
The house of the victim (a teacher at Suranjoy English Academy at Mekola Bazaar in Imphal West district) was raided by 22nd Maratha Light Infantry stationed at Patsoi on the night of 16 August 2007. They suspected him to be “M.C. Luwang”, an alleged member of the banned United National Liberation Front (UNLF). When the victim’s brother Mr Soraisham Sanajaoba Singh, a retired member of the Manipur Rifles, pleaded on behalf of the victim, the army officer did not arrest the victim but asked him to produce himself to their camp the next morning.
On the morning of 17 August 2007, the victim along with others met the Commanding Officer at the Head Quarters of the 22 Maratha Light Infantry stated at the Tulihal Airport. Again on 18 August 2007, the victim along with the local Member of Legislative Assembly, Mr RK Anand Suranjoy and English Academy School Principal Mr Heisnam Nungshibabu went to the 22nd Maratha Light Infantry camp stationed at Patsoi and met the Captain.
The victim also submitted a written representation to the Superintendent of Police, Imphal West clarifying his credentials. He informed the local Meira Paibis (women’s organization) as well as the local media that he “is not M.C. Luwang of UNLF”.
On 1 September 2007 at around 11 pm, six army personnel from 57th Mountain Division came to his house and dragged him from the bed.. He was blindfolded and handcuffed. He was tortured in the army custody. He was later handed over to the Nambol Police Station and finally released at about 11.30 am after signing a P.R. Bond. He was admitted for medical treatment at the Nambol Community Health Centre.
On 25 May 2007 at around 3.30 p.m, Moirangthem Budha Singh, a goldsmith, was arrested by the police. Mr Singh was unlawfully detained at the lock up of Moirang police station for 5 days without producing him before the Court. During the illegal detention, he was allegedly coerced to sign a paper. Later, he was taken to Sajiwa Jail and detained there for another 5 days. On 5 June 2007, he was produced before the Chief Judicial Magistrate, Bishunupur and released on bail.
On 29 November 2007, Elangbam Sanayaima (about 25 years) (son of Elangbam Inaocha) of Hiyanglam Warakhong in Thoubal district was arrested by personnel of the 21st Assam Rifles stationed at Keirak on false charge of being a member of the banned United National Liberation Front (UNLF).
He was taken to Keirak camp. He was blindfolded and his hands tied. The Assam Rifles personnel alleged that he was one Sanayaima, a member of the banned UNLF. He denied the accusation. He was then tortured to coerce him to admit that he was a member of the UNLF. According to the victim, the torture lasted for about three hours. Thereafter, he was taken in an army vehicle to the Kakctling police station. On the way to the police station the Assam Rifles personnel threatened him saying that they would kill him in a fake encounter if he did not confess. Out of fear he admitted before the Officer-in-Charge of Kakctling police station that he was Sanayaima. He was detained at the police lock- up after a medical check up at the local Kakching Hospital. He was later released from the police custody. The charges against him have not been dropped.
Maibam Ratankumar Singh is a lecturer in the Department of History in S. Kula Women’s College, Nambol Kongkham in West Imphal. On the intervening night of 29-30 July 2007, Maibam Ratankumar Singh (about 40 years) of Kwakeithel Dewan Leikai under Singjamei Police Station in Imphal was picked up from his house by personnel of the Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry stationed at Khwairapan pump house in Bishnupur district. He was questioned and taken away No arrest memo was issued. When the victim’s wife, Maibam Ongbi Nanda Devi tried to prevent the He was blindfolded .After 30 minutes the vehicle stopped. The officer asked him to “speak the truth. One of the army personnel threatened to kill him. Then he was taken to the army camp. His legs were tied together with a rope and his hands were tied at the back. They interrogated him further. He once again insisted that he had no connections with the under ground outfits. He was tortured. In the morning of 30 July 2007, an officer apologized and said that they had been mistaken and that he would be released soon. He was allowed to make a call to his wife.. The victim was released after they signed the paper. The victim had to be admitted to Jawaharlal Nehru Hospital, Imphal.
On the midnight of 23 August 2007, Wahengbam Binoy alias Roshan (22) (son of W. Ibopishak) of Khuman Maning Leikai under Wangoi police station in Bishnupur district was picked up by the personnel of 22nd Maratha Light Infantry of 9 Sector under HQ IGAR (S) without any arrest memo. The victim was a farmer. He was tortured at the army camp by Manipuri speaking personnel. On the morning of 24 August 2007, he was again tortured by 7 to 8 police commandos at the same camp. He was forced to sign a blank paper. In the afternoon of 24 August 2007, he was handed over to Nambol police station. Later in the same day, he was shifted to the lock up of Wangoi police station. Yet, on 24 August 2007, the army authorities issued a press statement stating that a cadre of the banned Kanglei Yaol Kanna Lup (KYKL) was apprehended by 22nd Maratha Light Infantry of 9 Sector under HQ IGAR (S) from Khuman. On the morning of 25 August 2007, the victim was produced before the Chief Judicial Magistrate at Lamphel and remanded 7 days in police custody. He was released on bail on 31 August 2007.
On 12 August 2007, Md. Siraj Ahamed (55) of Lilong Tairen Makhong in Thoubal district was picked up by personnel of 32nd Assam Rifles stationed at Lilong. The victim is a Grade IV employee of the Irrigation and Flood Control Department, Government of Manipur posted at Division No. 6 at Lamphel. On 12 August 2007 at around 11.30 am, some Assam Rifles personnel came to his house at Lilong Tairen Makhong in Thoubal district and asked him to produce drugs and tablets (referring to substance abused by drug addicts). When the victim denied having any knowledge about drugs, he was hit at the back of his waist. He requested the Assam Rifles personnel not to hit at the waist as he had just undergone a major surgery. But the beating continued. When the victim’s wife Haliman Begum demanded to know the reason for the beating, the Assam Rifles personnel also threatened her.
On 4 May 2007, Potshangbam Shantikumar Singh (39) (son of P. Kullachandra Singh) of Bhamdiyar Maning Leikai in Imphal West district was arrested by the personnel of 4th Assam Rifles stationed at Chingmeirong in Imphal on the charges of having links with the banned Kanglei Yaol Kanna Lup (KYKL).
During detention, the Assam Rifles personnel allegedly asked him to run by holding their gun. But he refused to run away thinking that he would be shot from behind. Then, he was blindfolded and kicked on his chest and taken to the army camp at Chingmeirong. Shantikumar was again tortured at the Chingmeirong camp in order to force him to confess that he had connections with KYKL. He was allegedly stripped naked; water was poured on his head, given electric shocks and was beaten up. He was not given food and was forced to sleep on the wet floor. On the morning of 5 May 2007, the Assam Rifles took his signature on a blank paper and then photographed him with a board at his chest. He was then handed over to Imphal West police station at around 10.00 pm on 5 May 2007. On 9 May 2007, Shantikumar was released on bail. He filed a complaint with the Superintendent of Police of Imphal West alleging torture at the hands of the Assam Rifles on 17 May 2007, but no action was taken. On 5 July 2007 at around 2.30 am, Santikumar was again arrested along with another person identified as Boinao from Ningthoukhong by 2nd Maratha Light Infantry stationed at Patsoi. In the custody, Shantikumar was allegedly stripped naked and tortured. He was charged with being a member of KYKL. At around 3 pm on 5 July 2007, both Shantikumar and Boinao were handed over to Patsoi police station. On 6 July 2007, Shantikumar was handed over to Nambol Police station and produced before the magistrate. He was remanded for three days in police custody. On 9 July 2007, he was produced before the Judicial Magistrate First Class Bishnupur Court and sent to jail. On 25 July 2007, he was released on bail.
Children are subjected to illegal detention and torture.
On the night of 27 June 2007, personnel of the 22nd Maratha Light Infantry while arresting one Md Manao (38) (son of late Talibula) allegedly tortured three minor girls named (name withheld) (17) (daughter of Md Abdul Chessam), her 15-year-old sister (name withheld) and (name withheld) (13-year-old) at Sekmaijin Makha Phoubakchao in Imphal. The victims had demanded production of the arrest memo by the security personnel in order to arrest Md Manao. All the three victims suffered injuries and had to be admitted to Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Imphal.
On 11 July 2007, (Name withheld) (17 years) (son of Ksh. Amuthoi) of Kongba Uchekcon Khunou in Imphal East district was detained by the personnel of Indian Reserve Battalion (IRB) at Kongba Bazar near Meitei Mayek High School when he was returning home after attaining private tuition. The security personnel suddenly accused him of taking alcohol or drugs. When the young boy denied the charges, the IRB personnel allegedly slapped him several times and asked him to lie down on the ground. He was illegally detained for about one and half hours and mentally and physically tortured. Following torture, the parents of the victim had to admit Kshetrimayum Roshan Singh to the Jawaharlal Nehru Hospital, Porompat, Imphal East at around mid night on 11 July 2007.
On 29 August 2007, seven youths identified as (Names withheld) were allegedly dragged out from a house and beaten up with wooden logs and hit with rifle butts by the India Reserve Battalion personnel in Senapati district.
On 21 December 2007, personnel of the 24th Assam Rifles allegedly beat up three innocent civilians including two minor girls identified as (names withheld) (17 years) and (15 years) in Moreh town near the Indo-Myanmar border. The 24th Assam Rifles stationed at Moreh raided a house in Moreh where the Muslim community members were celebrating “Edul Zuha” festival.
Assam Rifles personnel arrested Md. Nasir Khan. When demanded an arrest memo to be issued the Assam Rifles personnel started beating some of them. (name withheld) (17 years) was fell unconscious from the attack. The victims were admitted at the Moreh Hospital. As the conditions of the minors worsened, they were shifted to the Regional Institute of Medical Sciences at Imphal and admitted to Emergency Ward.
III. Freedom of the press
Journalists worked under immense threats. The threats came from both the government and AOGs. On 2 August 2007, Manipur government imposed restrictions on reporting of certain militancy-related activities. The order was issued under the provisions of Section 95 of the Criminal Procedure Code (Power to declare certain publications forfeited and to issue search warrants for the same).
The security forces were responsible for torture, illegal detention and harassment of the journalists. On 14 March 2007, a team of reporters including cameraman Gagan from the ISTV, and Brojen from the Ireibak, were beaten up and detained for nearly two hours by personnel of the 38th Assam Rifles posted at Kotlien on NH-53 under Senapati district while covering a case of alleged sexual assault of a girl by a Assam Rifles personnel.
The journalists also faced the wrath of the student activists. On 20 March 2007, four journalists including reporter Nikesh of Ireibak and ISTV cameraman Gagan were detained and their cameras and other materials seized by Kuki Students Union (KSO) and Hills Tribal Council (HTC) for not complying with bandh (strike) called by the KSO.
AOGs employed torture and threats as means to silence media critisism. On the night of 4 November 2007, journalist AK Sanaton Singh was beaten up by unidentified persons, believed to be cadres of armed groups, at his house at Singjamei Wangma Kshtri Leikai in Imphal East district.
On 31 July 2007, suspected cadres of the People’s Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK) delivered a grenade packed in a box to the editor of The Sangai Express in Imphal to intimidate the editor.
The 2006 Annual Report of National Crime Records Bureau of India (NCRB) recorded 171 cases of violence against women in Manipur during 2006. Of these, 40 were cases of rape, 79 were kidnapping and abduction cases, among others. While the NCRB recorded 54 cases of violence against children including six cases of killing and 15 cases of rape during the same period.
On 13 March 2007, an 18-year old girl identified as Nengneikim Haokip (daughter of Themang Haokip) of Beitun Khullen in Senapati district, was allegedly raped by a personnel identified as Nungthui Gangmei belonging to the 38th Assam Rifles posted at Kotlien. The victim also suffered head injuries after the alleged rapist bashed her head against a stone while struggling with her.
On 9 July 2007, a 20-year old woman was allegedly raped by three gunmen suspected to be cadres of an AOG in presence of her two minor children at T-Phaijol village in Churachandpur district.
Children were also targeted. According to statistics of Manipur Police, at least five cases of rape of minor girls were reported in 2006. On 26 January 2007, a 10-year old girl was raped by a 60-year old man identified as Paokholung Golmei at Deulahland in Imphal. In yet another case, an eight-year-old girl was raped in Thoubal district on 27 January 2007.
The Manipur State Commission for Women (MSCW), which came into existence in November 2006, was ineffective. It lacked office infrastructure and adequate funds. The Commission functions in a single room at the State Bal Bhavan office at Khuman Lampak. The tiny office fails to accommodate the visitors who turn up every day and had to hear complaints outdoors. The state government initially sanctioned Rs 10 lakhs for the Commission which was later reduced to Rs 5 lakhs. On 17 January 2007, Chairperson of Manipur State Women’s Commission, Dr Ch Jamini herself stated that “The state women commission is constituted by dumping three old women in a room at a deserted office with no infrastructure. It is equivalent to announcing a death sentence for the women commission.”
AOGs were responsible for violation of the international humanitarian law.
AOGs carried out extrajudicial killings. Often the identity of the killers remained unknown.
AOGs targeted government officials, NGO activists, community leaders, political leaders, migrant workers, alleged police informers and laymen suspected of carrying out activities against AOGs.
On 14 November 2007, 50-year-old Y. Raseshwori Devi, Project Officer at Social Welfare Department, was shot dead by alleged cadres of Kangleipak Communist Party (Military Council) inside her office at Moirang in Bishnupur district. The deceased was accused of corruption.
Others who were killed by alleged members of armed opposition groups included
- Chingsubam Akaba, adviser of the Manipur Peoples Party (MPP), was shot dead by two unidentified gunmen at his house at Khurai Soibamn Leikai in Imphal East district on 1 January 2007;
- Mangasatabam Bharatngamba who was shot dead by unidentified gunmen at Tera Sadokpam Leikai in Imphal West district on 7 January 2007;
- Y Gopen, an activist of Congress party, who was shot dead by unidentified gunmen at Mayang Langjing in Imphal West district on the night of 23 January 2007;
- Yamthang Haokip, a Kuki tribal leader, who was shot dead by unidentified gunmen at Siakul in Imphal district on 9 March 2007;
- Chingsubam Onil who was shot dead by unidentified gunmen after abduction from his residence at Thangmeiband Yumnam Leikai in Imphal West district on 1 April 2007;
- Sanasam Jugeshwar Singh (53) who was shot dead by unidentified gunmen at Langol Laimanai under Lamphel police station in Imphal West district on 29 May 2007;
- Yumnam Roshan, an auto-rickshaw driver who was shot dead by unidentified gunmen at Moreh town in Chandel district on 3 June 2007;
- Angom Ingocha (son of Angom Gouramani) who was shot dead by unidentified gunmen at Moreh town in Chandel district on 4 August 2007;
- three youths - Santham Dhanajit, Yumnam Inao Meitei and Huidrom Manaoton Meitei who were abducted and killed by unidentified gunmen at Keibi Kumuda under Lamlai police station in Imphal East district on the night of 17 October 2007;
- two youths - Ningthoujam Mangolsana and Yaikhom Angam, both residents of Yorbung Mamang Leikai who were shot dead by unidentified gunmen at Yorbung village in Imphal East district on the night of 21 October 2007; and
- Akoijam Yaima alias Romen, a shopkeeper of Mongsangei Boroi Makhong under Singjamei police station who was shot dead by alleged cadres of PREPAK in Imphal West district on 28 September 2007.
AOGs also targeted migrant labourers. On the night of 8 March 2007, five Bengali migrant labourers were shot dead after abduction by unidentified gunmen at Ningthoukhong Bazar in Bishenpur district.
The AOGs killed women on suspicion of being “police informers” or working against AOGs.
On 16 October 2007, Tongbram Bimola (35), mother of four children, was shot dead by alleged cadres of UNLF near her home at Kwakeithel Akham Leikai. The deceased was suspected of being a police informer.
On 27 September 2007, Ningombam Komlatombi (46) was shot dead by cadres of AOGs at her home at Soibam Leikai while having dinner with her daughter and niece.
On 24 February 2007, a woman identified as Kangujam Maimu Devi (wife of K Ranjit Singh) died after being abducted by suspected activists of an armed group for her alleged involvement in anti-party activities. She was abducted on 20 February 2007. Family members of the deceased alleged that she died as a result of torture.
AOGs in Manipur, in particular Kanglei Yawol Kanba Lup (KYKL), were responsible for torture which they inflicted often by shooting at the legs of those allegedly involved in corruption or other malpractices. They abducted and then shot the victims at their legs to create fear among the public.
On 12 February 2007, a presiding officer for elections to the Manipur Assembly identified as L Hemochandra (50) was abducted by armed cadres in Imphal West district. He was released after being shot in the leg for allegedly distributing money to people on behalf of a Congress candidate.
On the night of 6 April 2007, Dr. S Iboton Singh, principal of the Central Academy School, Mantripukhri and another teacher identified as Md Janabuddin were shot in their legs at Canchipur by suspected KYKL cadres for allegedly running National Open School which had been banned by the outfit KYKL. Various bruise marks were also seen on their bodies.
On 28 August 2007, former Joint Director of Board of Secondary Education Manipur, Ph Nandakumar Sharma was shot in the knee by alleged members of KYKL on charges of corruption. Sharma had been suspended by the State Government for his alleged involvement in the illegal appointment of government school teachers.
On 21 December 2007, Soubam Dhanbir, Executive Engineer of Irrigation and Flood Control Department, was shot in the legs by an unidentified AOG at his Thangmeiband Sinam Leikai residence in Imphal West district.
Extortion by the AOGs was reportedly widespread in the state.
On 12 October 2007, three engineers identified as Laishram Ibomcha Singh, Okram Meino Singh and Ningombam Upendro of the Manipur Public Health Engineering (PHE) Department were abducted by the Kuki Revolutionary Army from Nongren area in Imphal East district. The group allegedly demanded Rs 1 crore for their safe release.
Earlier on 14 May 2007, four subsidiaries of the Government-owned General Insurance Corporation ceased operations in Manipur following extortion demands from armed opposition groups. The AOGs allegedly demanded around Rs 45 lakhs.
1. Scribes protest Ibobi gag, The Telegraph, 5 August 2007
2. Court News, Supreme Court of India, available at: http://www.supremecourtofindia.nic.in/JAN-MAR2008.pdf
3. ACHR’s complaint to NRHC dated 12nd June 2007
4. ACHR’s complaint to NHRC dated 11th June 2007
5. ACHR’s complaint (Reference No. MN/13/2007) to NHRC on 5th December 2007
6. ACHR’s complaint to NHRC dated 5th December 2007
7. ACHR’s complaint to NHRC dated 5th December 2007
8. ACHR’s complaint to NHRC dated 20th September 2007
9. ACHR’s complaint to NHRC dated 20th October 2007
10. Killing slur casts on AR, The Sangaiexpress, 25 January 2007
11. Manipur bodies call general strike against civilian killing, The Assam Tribune, 2 February 2007
12. Bandh pause in poll frenzy - Uproar over youth’s death in ‘fake’ encounter, The Telegraph, 12 February 2007
13. Probe ordered into killing of Imphal youths, The Assam Tribune, 10 April 2007
14. Twin blockades to protest killings, The Telegraph, 27 November 2007
15. Assam Rifles told to pay up, The Telegraph, 12 July 2007
16. Information obtained from NHRC by ACHR through filing RTI application
17. ACHR’s complaint to NHRC dated 10 September 2007
18. ACHR’s complaint to NHRC dated 5 December 2007 (ACHR’s Reference No. MN/12/2007)
19. ACHR’s complaint to the NHRC dated 7 January 2008
20. ACHR’s complaint to NHRC dated 10 September 2007
21. ACHR’s complaint to NHRC dated 5 December 2007 (ACHR Reference No. MN/16/2007)
22. ACHR’s complaint to NHRC dated 5 December 2007 (ACHR Reference: MN/15/2007)
23. ACHR’s complaint to NHRC dated 5 December 2007 (ACHR Reference No. MN/11/2007)
24. ACHR’s complaint to NHRC dated 4 July 2007 (ACHR’s Reference No. MN/04/2007)
25. ACHR’s complaint to NHRC dated 5 December 2007 (ACHR’s Reference No. MN/14/2007)
26. Snap bandh in Senapati over assault on youths by IRB, The Kanglaonline, 31 August 2007
27. ACHR’s complaint to NHRC on 7 January 2008
28. Scribes protest Ibobi gag, The Telegraph, 5 August 2007
29. Mediamen face AR wrath for covering rape incident, The Kanglaonline, 15 March 2007
30. Mediamen harassed again, this time by KSO, HTC, The Sentinel, 21 March 2007
31. AMWJU flays assault of veteran journalist, http://epao.net/GP.asp?src=13..071107.nov07
32. Editor threatened, Manipur media houses strike work, The Indian Express, 2 August 2007
33. Sheltering rape accused’ slur on AR; women folk, scribes thrashed 18 yr old girl raise rape cry, protesting women thrashed, many condemn, The Sangaiexpress, 15 March 2007
34. Gunmen rape housewife in Churachandpur, The Kanglaonline, 10 July 2007
35. Five minor girls raped in Manipur in 2006, The Sentinel, 2 January 2007
36. Women’s commission saddled with problems, The Sentinel, 30 April 2007
38. Rebels gun down Manipur woman official inside office, The Telegraph, 15 November 2007
39. MPP adviser shot dead in Manipur, The Telegraph, 2 January 2007
40. Women leaders threaten to stop work over killing of youth, The Kanglaonline, 29 January 2007
41. Manipur Congress worker shot, The Telegraph, 26 January 2007
42. Kuki tribal leader killed, The Hindu, 11 March 2007
43. Four killed in Manipur, The Assam Tribune, 3 April 2007
44. Villagers flee after threats from rebels, The Sentinel, 1 June 2007
45. Curfew, indefinite strike at Moreh after killing of auto-driver hightens tension, The Kanglaonline, 4 June 2007
46. Moreh bandh against killing of youth, The Assam Tribune, 6 August 2007
47. Killings trigger protest - 3 Manipuri youths shot, The Telegraph, 19 October 2007
48. Killing of two more youths escalates tension at Yorbung; Bodies of three PREPAK victims taken by families, The Kanglaonline, 23 October 2007
49. PREPAK owns up killing of trader, The Assam Tribune, 1 October 2007
50. Five migrants gunned down, The Telegraph, 10 March 2007
51. Conflict killings and tortures in Manipur leave no space for Intl Humanitarian Law, The Kanglaonline, 1 November 2007
52. Conflict killings and tortures in Manipur leave no space for Intl Humanitarian Law, The Kanglaonline, 1 November 2007
53. Woman dies after detention by suspected UGs, The Kanglaonline, 26 February 2007
54. Polling officer shot at in Manipur, The Assam Tribune, 14 February 2007
55. Principal, teacher shot in the legs, The Kanglaonline, 7 April 2007
56. Manipur militants shoot education official in knee for corruption, The Indian Express, 29 August 2007
57. Manipur engineer shot in legs by ultras, The Assam Tribune, 22 December 2007
58. 3 engineers in rebel custody - Police not informed even after 8 days, The Telegraph, 21 October 2007
59. 4 insurance firms shut shop in Manipur after extortion demands, The Indian Express, 17 May 2007