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Maldives


Contents

I. Ranking in Human Rights Violators Index: 4th

II. Political freedom

III. Human rights violations by the security forces

IV. Judiciary and administration of Justice

V. Effectiveness of National Human Rights Institutions

VI. Repression on Human Rights Defenders

VII. Freedom of the press

VIII. Violations of the prisoners' rights

IX. Violations of the rights of the child

X. Violence against women


I. Ranking in Human Rights Violators Index: 4th

With a population of 0.28 million, Maldives has been ruled with an iron hand by President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom since 1978. Despite submission of 31-point proposals for constitutional amendments to the People's Special Majlis by President Gayoom on 14 February 2005, granting permission to register political parties in June 2005 and the ratification of the “Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment” on 14 September 2005, Maldives has been ranked No. 4th in the SAARC Human Rights Violators Index 2006. In practical terms, there was no improvement of human rights situation in 2005.

II. Political freedom

On 2 June 2005, the parliament of Maldives, known as the Peoples' Majlis, unanimously passed a motion to allow registration of political parties.[1] Although Article 27 of the 1998 Constitution of Maldives provided for freedom of association, registration of political parties had been banned earlier.

After June 2, four political parties, Maldivian Democratic Party (MDP), Dhivehi Rayyithunge Party (DRP) of President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, Islamic Adhaalath Party (IAP) headed by Dr. Abdul Majeed Abdul Bari and Islamic Democratic Party (IDP) led by Umar Naseer were registered.[2] There were allegations against President Gayoom of using civil servants and state resources to recruit members into the DRP.[3] Many Maldivian businessmen in tourism and trade had reportedly been forced to join the DRP.[4]

Though political parties were allowed, political activities were virtually banned. On 6 September 2005, the government temporarily suspended all political rallies till 20 September 2005 following alleged attack on policemen at an MDP rally on the night of 5 September 2005.[5] On 8 September 2005, however, the government withdrew the suspension.[6] On 1 November 2005, Foreign Minister Dr Ahmed Shaheed threatened the opposition MDP stating that “inciting rebellion” through “peaceful disobedience” was an “offence” and could result in prison terms.[7]

Peaceful gathering critical of the government was suppresed violently in clear violation of Article 26 of the 1998 Constitution that provides for the right to peaceful assembly and Article 27 that provides for the right to freedom of association.

In the early morning of 1 August 2005, a large number of people who had gathered in front of the Majlis Building to observe the proceedings of the session of the Majlis were brutally beaten up with sten guns and electric shock batons by the Elite Star police.[8] Several people were arrested and charged with unlawful assembly.[9]

Mr Mohamed Nasheed, Chairperson of the MDP, was arrested on 12 August 2005 by the riot police along with four other MDP activists – Jennifer Latheef, Ahmed Abbas, Latheefa Umar and Aminath Shareef during a peaceful protest at the Republican Square in Male on the occasion of the first anniversary of pro-democracy uprising.[10] The police claimed that Mohamed Nasheed was taken into custody for his own safety and to help disperse a 600-strong crowd.[11] But Nasheed was later charged with terrorism under Article 6(b) with reference to Article 2 (g) of Law No. 10/90 i.e. Law on the Prevention of Terrorism in the Maldives and sedition under Article 29 of the Penal Code. Mr Nasheed was initially held in Dhoonidhoo Detention Centre and later placed under house arrest in Male on 1 November 2005.[12] He was not released by the end of 2005.

The sentences were disproportionate to the crimes purportedly committed by opposition political activists. The sentencing of Ms Jennifer Latheef, Councilor and Human Rights Coordinator of MDP, to 10 years' imprisonment under the Law on the Prevention of Terrorism in the Maldives on 18 October 2005 for allegedly throwing a stone towards a policeman in 2003 was an apt example of disproportionate sentences.[13]

Registration of political parties had no effect, as in the by-elections for the Special Majlis, the Constituent Assembly in three vacant seats of Male, Addu and Shaviyani[14] held on 24 December 2005, political parties could not field their candidates. Candidates supported by the opposition political parties had to contest the bye-elections as “independent candidates”!

Arbitrary arrest, detention and intimidation of political leaders and cadres opposed to President Gayoom continued unabated.

On 22 January 2005, Ahmed Falah, an MDP photographer, was arrested for filming a protest by voters at a polling station in Male during the elections for the Majlis. He was charged under section 58 of the Penal Code for “committing an act in a public place that would disturb the peace,” which was lessened to “disobedience to order” under 88(a) of the Penal Code on 9 March 2005. While in detention, the authorities brought forward a case that alleged his involvement in assaulting a prison inmate in November 1998 (Lawsuit nos: 889/JC/2003 and 890/JC/2003). He was transferred to house arrest on 21 March 2005. In June 2005, he was convicted and sentenced to six months in prison.[15] He was sentenced based on his confessional statement extracted under torture by the police. He was released on 8 December 2005 after serving his sentence.[16]

On 4 August 2005, pro-democracy activists Ibrahim Shiham, Moosa Haleem, Mohamed Siddeeque and Hussain Rasheed were arrested on the charge of participating in an “unlawful assembly” in the Republican Square in Male on the same day. Ibrahim Shiham was produced in the court on 18 August 2005. He told the court that he was arrested at 4:30 pm on 4 August 2005 and was taken straight to Dhoonidhoo Detention Centre, and therefore he could not possibly have taken part in the unlawful assembly later that evening in Male. The second hearing into Ibrahim Shiham's case took place on 21 August 2005 which also reportedly ended abruptly after the State Attorney Abdullah Nasheed failed to establish charges against him.[17]

On 16 August 2005, senior MDP member from Addu, Abdulla Rasheed was arrested at Addu Atoll along with a large number of MDP supporters including Mohammed Saeed, Ibrahim Zadhee, Mohammed Saeedh, Abdulla Sodig, Hussein Shahid, Zahidh Hussein, Saudhullah Hameed, Mohammed Habeeb, Mohammed Sharmeel, Ibrahim Jamaal, Mohammed Zubair, Ibrahim Rasheed, Ahmed Sattar, Sobree, Shammi and Azleem.[18]

III. Human rights violations by the security forces

The security forces were responsible for gross human rights violations including violations of the right to life, torture and other inhuman and degrading treatment.

Muaviath Mahmood who was arrested along with Fathimath Suzana, Ahmed Zuhoor and Shamoon Rasheed on alleged drug offences on 4 March 2005 died on 9 March 2005 at Dhoonidhoo jail allegedly because of torture in police custody. Mahmood's father lodged a complaint with the Human Rights Commission of Maldives (HRCM) alleging that he had seen traces of maltreatment on the body of his son. Police summoned Mahmood's father twice on 24 and 25 March 2005 for lodging the complaint.[19] Co-accused and co-detainee Ahmed Zuhoor and Samoon Rasheed in their written statements before the HRCM submitted on 28 March 2005 corroborated that Muaviath Mahmood was tortured to death.[20]

Ahmed Zuhoor alleged that the police wrung his arms backwards and clipped them together, hung him up and physically abused him severely during the investigations. He had to be admitted to Indira Gandhi Memorial Hospital on 13 and 15 April 2005 respectively following physical assault by police officers on 4 April 2005. He was taken back to Dhoonidhoo Detention Centre on 15 April 2005 and kept in solitary confinement until his release without charge on 24 May 2005.[21] Another detainee, Shamoon Rasheed also complained to the HRCM that police “kicked and punched” him while conducting the investigation and forced him to sign a confessional statement admitting that he used and sold narcotics.[22]

Ibrahim Mohamed, who was arrested for alleged possession of drugs on 7 March 2005, alleged that policemen running from a distance gave flying kicks at his chest and stomach, hit his head with chairs, banged his head against walls, pulled his hair and hit him on the chest with elbows, among other abuses. He reportedly had several visible bruises, swelling and wounds, including cuffed marks, bruises on his neck as a result of strangling and bruises on his back, arms, chest, stomach and knees. On 12 March 2005, he had to be taken to Indira Gandhi Memorial Hospital because of excessive bleeding from his genitals and anus.[23]

Arbitrary arrests were rampant in Maldives. At the midnight of 23 January 2005, one Mohamed Fauzi was arrested by the police without any warrant and taken to Dhoonidhoo Detention Center.[24]

On 24 April 2005, the Indian authorities deported one Ibrahim Asif to Maldives after arresting him on the charge of trying to carry out alleged terrorist activities. He was released on 12 August 2005 only to be re-arrested on 22 August 2005 under Law on the Prevention of Terrorism.[25] In early November 2005, Asif was transferred from Dhoonidhoo Detention Centre to house arrest.[26] On 20 November 2005, he was produced before the Criminal Court on the grounds that “the Indian police had said he was connected to al-Qaeda.” Although Asif strongly denied the charge and the police could not produce any evidence against him, the judge arbitrarily ordered that he be put under house arrest.[27]

IV. Judiciary and administration of Justice

There is no independence of judiciary in Maldives. President Gayoom is the head of the judiciary[28] and has the power to appoint[29] and dismiss judges at his whims[30]. There is no Supreme Court and the appeals are heard in the High Court, and the president being the final arbiter of appeals.[31] The President is the judge and jury in Maldives.

On 11 November 2005, a ten-member Judicial Services Commission (JSC) was established to ensure independence of judiciary from the executive. The JSC is mandated to advise the President on the appointment and dismissal of judges.[32] However, the opposition MDP alleged that all the ten members of the JSC including the Chief Justice and three other judges, the Attorney-General and the Minister of Justice, and four other members were President Gayoom's cronies.[33]

No substantive legal reforms were undertaken to implement the recommendations contained in the report titled “Report on the Criminal Justice System of the Republic of Maldives: Proposals for Reform” in 2004. The report was prepared at the request of the Maldivian Government for the United Nations Development Programme as part of President Gayoom's reform proposals. Professor Robinson, the author of the report, stated that “the Maldivian criminal justice system systematically fails to do justice and regularly does injustice”.[34]

The conviction of Jeniffer Latheef showed that judiciary often acts as the rubber stamp of the executive. Her conviction rested on a claim by a police officer that she had hit him in the shin with a stone, while he was walking away from her in September 2003.

Thousands of people had participated in the demonstrations on September 2003 and there was no evidence to suggest that Ms Latheef was involved in any violent activity. Of the seven witnesses against Ms Latheef, six were fellow police officers, whose statements reportedly contradicted with each other. But Judge Fahmy of the Criminal Court completely ignored the inconsistencies in the statements given by the State's (prosecution) witnesses to the police as well as in the court. The judge held that given the ‘lapse of time' between police statements and court hearing, the contradictions were insignificant but he also completely ignored vital defence arguments. Ms Latheef was ultimately sentenced based on her alleged confession to the police, and on the basis of undated photographs of her taken by anonymous sources.

In fact, the government admitted that 97% of cases in 2003 and 64% of the cases in 2004 were adjudicated based on confessional statements of the accused.

Earlier on 2 October 2005, Abdulla Alexander, Abdulla Shabir and Ahmad Moosa, who were also charged for committing acts of terrorism for participating in the September 2003 civil unrest, were each sentenced to 11 years jail. Another pro-democracy activist Ikleel Ibrahim was given 10 years sentence.[35]

The lawyer of the Chairperson of MDP Mohamed Nasheed, Husnu Suood alleged that “equal opportunities had not been given to the defense and the prosecution” by the trial judge during the hearings.[36]

V. Effectiveness of National Human Rights Institutions

The Human Rights Commission of the Maldives was established on 10 December 2003 by special decree of the President. On 21 July 2005, the People's Majlis (Parliament) passed the Human Rights Commission Bill which was aimed at reducing the investigative powers of the Commission.

In response to the Bill, the Human Rights Commission of Maldives submitted 13-point recommendations for amendment of the Human Rights Commission Bill. Among others, the HRCM sought amendment to Article 4 of the bill that provided for seven full-time members in the Commission; Article 6(a) that provided that one must be a Muslim for appointment as a member of the Commission; Article 9, which, according to HRCM, “may have a negative influence on the Commission because of the Chairperson”; Article 13(a)(3) which provided that each member of the Commission should actively participate in all aspects of the investigations; Article 19(a) which provided that the Commission should ensure that any complaint has to be filed with the prior consent of the victim;

Article 21(b)(3) which was amended to deny power to the Commission to have access to documents such as victim's statement given to the police or National Security Service personnel; Article 28(c) which provides that financial records shall be maintained in accordance with the guidelines set by the Auditor General who is appointed by the President, which may, in the words of the Commission, “give the opportunity to the President to influence the work of the Commission”.[37]

None of the recommendations of the HRCM were accepted. President Gayoom ratified the bill, without any change, on 18 August 2005. In protest, the Chairperson of the Human Rights Commission of the Maldives, Ahmed Mujuthaba resigned on 12 September 2005.

The Human Rights Commission of Maldives had already been suffering because of lack of members. Out of total nine members, three members resigned during 2004. As no new member was appointed, the HRCM started the year with only 6 members.  Out of the six members, Mohamed Waheed Deen resigned on 14 July 2005 following his appointment as the Minister of Atolls Development, Dr. Fathimath Shafga resigned on 22 August 2005 due to family problems and Ms. Aishath Ali Naaz resigned on 7 September 2005 for higher studies abroad. Since Chairperson of HRCM, Ahmed Mujuthaba himself resigned in protest of the Human Rights Commission Bill on 12 September 2005, only 2 members - Mr. Ahmed Saleem and Mr. Mohamed Waheed were left with the Commission till the end of 2005.[38] The Human Rights Commission could not function since August 2005 because of the lack of quorum.

VI. Repression on Human Rights Defenders

Human rights defenders continued to face repression. Only those individuals close to the regime were allowed to register NGOs. The biggest NGO in the Maldives, Society for Health Education, is headed by First Lady, Nasreena Abdul Gayoom.[39]

In 2005, there was only one local registered human rights organization, Hama Jamiyya headed by Adduvas editor Aishath Velizinee.[40]

The government denied registration to four NGOs, namely, Human Rights Association of Maldives, Reporting Network for the Relatives of the Persons in Judicial Care, Maldivian Detainee Network and Maldives Center for Human Rights and Democracy. Home Minister Ahmed Thasmeen Ali informed the parliament that the organizations were denied registration because they have international contacts![41]

Human Rights defenders were at risks of arrest and intimidation. On 19 March 2005, Ahmed Nazim Sattar, chief organizer of the “Reporting Network for the Relatives of the Persons in Judicial Care” was summoned to the Police Station for unspecified charges and was accused of advising Mrs Sakeena, mother of Ahmed Zuhoor who was arrested on 5 March 2005 and ill-treated in custody, to approach the Human Rights Commission of the Maldives.[42]

VII. Freedom of the press

Article 25 of the 1998 Constitution of the Maldives provides for freedom of expression “unless prohibited by law in the interest of protecting the sovereignty of the Maldives, of maintaining public order and of protecting the basic tenets of Islam”. The Penal Code also prohibits inciting citizens against the government.[43]

The government consistently misused these provisions to silence press freedom. At least a dozen journalists were arrested for exercising their freedom of expression. Cyber dissident Ahmed Ibrahim Didi who was arrested in January 2002 continued to be detained till the end of 2005.

The government controlled all the electronic and print media. The government continued to jam broadcasting of independent Radio Station – Minivan Radio – which ran a shortwave service for one hour a day as well as the website of Dhivehi Observer based in London.

In July 2005, the government allowed registration of four newspapers Minivan, Dhuvas, Iruvaru and Hafthaa Kulhivaru and four magazines Vaguthu, Fanvai, Galan and Best of Maldives.[44] The Minivan daily became the only registered daily which was not directly controlled by President Gayoom. The others -  Haveeru is controlled by the former minister for youth and sport, while daily Aafathis is owned by the brother-in-law of President Gayoom, and Miadhu daily is directly controlled by President Gayoom and has Information minister, Ahmed Abdullah, as the head of the editorial team.[45]

Minivan and its staff bore the brunt of the onslaught of the State against freedom of expression.

Despite acquiring permission to produce a print edition in July 2005, the print edition of Minivan ceased to appear following alleged threats from the government thugs to the printer of the newspaper at the end of August 2005. The newspaper had to continue its circulation in photocopied form.[46]

The government continued to intimidate Minivan and its editor Aminath Najeeb. Najeeb was twice detained by the police and threatened with prosecution and potential jail term. On 20 September 2005, government-controlled media announced that six articles published by Minivan titled “unrest created in Male are planned by certain people” published in the newspaper on 17 August 2005; “Torture out of control” and “thanks performed” published on 21 August 2005; “Government instills fear on students calling for the resignation of the President” published on 15 August 2005; “the secret of dis-education policy” published on 25 August 2005; and an article titled “He may do anything to remain in power” published on 18 September 2005[47] were sent to the Attorney-General for criminal prosecution by the Ministry of Information.

Many reporters of Minivan were arrested on frivolous charges. These included Minivan's correspondent Shuaib Ali who was arrested on 13 August 2005[48], Minivan's photo journalist Imran Zahir who was arrested while covering an MDP rally in Male and taken to Dhoonidhoo Detention Centre on 4 September 2005[49] and Minivan reporter, Abdulla Saeed (Fahala) who was taken into custody on 13 October 2005.

There was little space for the right to freedom of expression. On 5 May 2005, Mohamed Didi, an MDP leader, was arrested in Addu Atoll for the interviews he gave to Minivan Radio regarding the unrest in Addu Atoll in April 2005 following the arrest of Zahid, a prominent member of the MDP from Feydhoo on terrorism charges. He was transferred to house arrest on 19 May 2005.[50] On 13 October 2005, Colonel Mohamed Nasheed, a leading columnist with Minivan newspaper, was arrested hours before he was due to speak at an MDP rally.[51]

The government maintained complete control over the internet. All dissident websites were blocked by the government controlled Internet Service Provider (ISP), Dhiraagu. Dhivehi Observer, a London-based website, which primarily focused on human rights violations in the Maldives, had been banned in the Maldives since it was launched in early 2004.[52]

On 1 May 2005, Ismail Faiz, the system manager of Dhiraagu, and another Dhiraagu employee, Mohamed Zahid were arrested by the police on the charge of collaborating with Dhivehi Observer. Ismail Faiz was later accused of having links with the militant group Jamatul Muslimeen. He was held in solitary confinement until his release on 6 June 2005.[53]

Even the journalists of government-run media were not spared. On 1 August 2005, Adduvas weekly photographer Ali Fahudhu was arrested by police near Mercury Light area in Male for taking pictures of police crackdown on protestors, who were demanding release of political detainees.[54]  This was followed by arrest of Ibrahim Rasheed, the managing director of the state-owned weekly Adduvas, on 14 August 2005.[55]

VIII. Violations of the prisoners' rights

Prison conditions remained deplorable in Maldives. Though the government of Maldives signed an agreement with the International Committee of the Red Cross on 5 October 2004 to provide access to visit the places of detention, there has been little improvement of the prison conditions. The visit of the HCRM to Dhoonidhoo jail on 9 March 2005 and Maafushi jail on 10 March 2005 exposed the deplorable prison conditions. The HRCM representatives were not allowed to hold private meetings with detainees.

There were no trained prison guards.[56] In Dhoonidhoo jail, there were a total of 118 prisoners including 8 children. The HRCM reported that the cells in the new building constructed for accommodating detainees “are not fit for accommodating people” as there were risks of “health problems”. The cells and toilets are so dark that the prisoners “complained of not being able to differentiate between night and day.”[57]

The quality of food was poor. Medical facilities were non-existent despite the fact that the detainees included a large number of alleged drug addicts. Many prisoners complained of beating and being kicked with boots on various parts of the body during interrogation. They were handcuffed with the hands behind their backs. Injury was inflicted to the sexual organs of both male and female inmates.[58]

In Dhoonidhoo jail, 11 persons were detained without being produced before the court.  These included 1 person for 39 days, 2 people for 25 days, 1 person for 14 days, 4 people for 9 days and 1 person for 5 days.[59]

In the Maafushi jail, there were a total of 376 prisoners. Although the jail was designated to hold people serving sentences, the undertrials (208) exceed those convicted (168). There was no segregation of the convicted from the undertrials.[60]

There were 6 cells in “D Block” of Maafushi jail where 78 undertrials were kept. The Human Rights Commission of Maldives held that the place was “in no way fit to accommodate humans”. The cells were so congested that it was not possible to walk or move about within the cells. The cells were hot and water leaked through the roof in some cells. Toilets were absolutely unhygienic. The detainees had no access to reading and writing materials.[61]

IX. Violations of the rights of the child

Maldives ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child on 13 March 1991 with reservation to Articles 14 and 21 and adopted Law on the Protection of the Rights of the Child in 1991.

There were reports of neglect and sexual abuse of children. Boys are favoured over girls.[62] Parents generally curtailed education for girls after the seventh grade. The Ministry of Gender and Family Development reported continued child abuse, including sexual abuse during 2005. Children were engaged in agriculture, fishing, and small commercial activities, including in family enterprises.[63]

Children in particular suffered from severe malnutrition. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations statistics revealed that 44 per cent of children in Maldives suffered from malnourishment.[64] According to UNICEF, a quarter of children under the age of 5 suffered stunted growth, which is one of the worst malnutrition rates in South Asia.[65]

Article 8 of the Law on the Protection of the Rights of the Child provides for rehabilitation of juvenile delinquents without punishment. Article 9 further provides that “A special procedure must be established for the investigation, adjudication of and the imposition of punishment, wherever necessary, for offences committed by children. Further, preference shall be given to rehabilitation of children, who are considered minor in Shari'a, without imposing punishment on such children.”

However, children faced harsh punishment from the courts. On 9 March 2005, Shaneez Hashim was sentenced to life imprisonment for “possessing drugs kept for the purpose of selling” by Juvenile Court Judge Abdulla Didi although he was a minor when he committed the alleged crime. Shaneez Hashim was arrested in August 2004 for alleged possession of drugs. According to his mother who lodged an appeal in April 2005, Shaneez Hashim was a minor when he committed the alleged crime but the Judge gave him a full adult sentence because he had since turned 18 years. Shaneez Hashim's mother alleged that her son did not have a lawyer and the Unit for the Rights of Children under Ministry of Women's Affairs and Social Security failed to supervise the case on the ground that the accused was now an adult. This was despite the fact that the case was heard at the Juvenile Court.[66]

Police also tortured children in custody. Following the unrest in Addu Atoll on 30 April 2005,[67] the police arrested a group of minor boys and allegedly tortured them in custody.  One of the boys from Hithadhoo stated that he and his co-detainees were slapped by the police before asking any question and were threatened to confess their involvement in the unrest. When the boys did not speak, they were allegedly given electric shocks a couple of times.[68]

X. Violence against women

Traditionally women have played a subordinate role in Maldivian society, although they now participate in public life in growing numbers and gradually have been participating at higher levels. In 2001, women constituted 38 percent of government employees, and about 10 percent of National Security Service (NSS) personnel.[69] In 2005, 2 women members were elected while 4 other women members were appointed by the President in the 50-member People's Majlis and 1 woman member was elected and 4 other women members were appointed by the President in the 50-member Special Majlis.[70]

Though “gender equality in relation to national development, law, and politics” was one of the seven main features of the 9 June 2004 Constitutional and Political Reforms of President Gayoom,[71] women, however, were still not eligible to become the President of the country but might hold other government posts.

The literacy rate of women was 98 percent[72] but women suffered in the administration of justice particularly because of the application of the Sharia in matters such as divorce, education, inheritance, and testimony in legal proceedings. Under the Sharia law, in the absence of any mutual agreement to divorce, husbands may divorce their wives more easily than vice versa. Shari'a law also governs interstate inheritance, granting male heirs twice the share of female heirs. Under the country's Islamic practice, the testimony of two women equals that of one man in matters involving Shari'a, such as adultery, finance, and inheritance.[73]

Women rights advocates in the Island nation maintained that cultural norms, not the law, inhibit women's education and career choices. In many instances, education for girls is curtailed after the seventh grade, largely because parents do not allow girls to leave their home island for an island having a secondary school. Due largely to orthodox Islamic background, there is a strong strain of conservative sentiment especially among small businessmen and residents of the outer islands who opposed an active role for women outside the home.

Maldives has not yet adopted any law pertaining to sexual harassment as well as domestic violence against women.

There were allegations of severe violence including sexual harassment against female detainees during detention. On 25 June 2005, police arrested one Ameelia Mohamed after having been accused by a third party of being a drug addict. The police allegedly forced her to sign a statement after severe beating. She was also subjected to sexual harassment and verbally abused with filthy language.[74]

On 12 August 2005, about thirty armed and masked policemen surrounded the peaceful protestors at the Republican Square at Male who were observing the first anniversary of pro-democracy uprising and arrested Ms. Aminath Shareef along with many others. Ms Shareef alleged that the police personnel kicked her and dragged her away from the Republican Square.[75]



[1]. Maldives to allow political parties, The Hindu, India, 3 June 2005

[2]. Umar Naseer's Islamic Democratic Party Finally Registered, available at http://www.minivannews .com/news/news.php?id=1561

[3]. Maumoon's People's Party "Using State Resources" in Gaafu Dhaalu, Shaviyani and Haa Alifu Atolls, available at http://www.minivannews.com/news/news.php?id=790

[4]. Maldivian businessmen forced by Gayyoom to join his party, available at http://dhivehiobserver.com/ insight/Gayyooms_Party_Maldives0506053.htm

[5]. Government places a two-week moratorium on disruptive political party rallies, available at http://www.haveeru.com.mv/?page=engdetails&id=5654

[6]. Government U-Turns on Party Rally Ban, http://www.minivannews .com/news/news.php?id=1183

[7]. Anyone Engaging in Peaceful Civil Disobedience Could Face Prison - Dr Shaheed, available at http://www.minivannews.com/news/news.php?id=1399

[8]. IFJ protests over renewed repression in the Maldives, Minivan News, 22 August 2005

[9]. Email communications to ACHR, 9 August 2005

[10]. Widespread civil unrest in Maldives following arrest of Opposition leader, Minivan News, 13 August 2005, available at http://www.minivannews.com/news/news.php?id=1072

[11]. Maldives opposition terror charge, BBC News, 23 August 2005, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4177840.stm

[12]. Opposition Leader Mohamed Nasheed (Anni) Placed Under House in Male', Minivan News, 1 November 2005

[13]. Star Force Police Enter ADK Hospital; Attempt to Forcibly Remove Jenny Latheef Who is Suffering from Suspected Dengue Fever, The Minivan News, 13 October 2005

[14]. Government Bans Political Parties Contesting Upcoming By-Elections; MDP Disappointed, available at http://www.minivannews.com/news/news.php?id=1258

[15]. http://www.maldiviandetainees. net/individuals/2falah.htm

[16]. http://www.aptim.org/campaigns. html

[17]. Democracy Trials Get Off to a Rocky Start for the Government, Minivan News, 23 August 2005

[18]. Call for International Intervention against Maldives, ACHR Review, 17 August 2005, available at http://www.achrweb.org/Review/2005/86-05.htm

[19]. http://www.maldiviandetainees. net/individuals/148Muaviath.htm

[20]. An English version of Ahmed Zuhoor's statement to HRCM is available at http://www.maldiviandetainees.net/individuals/148Muaviath.htm

[21]. http://www.maldiviandetainees. net/individuals/152Zuhoor.htm

[22]. http://www.maldiviandetainees. net/individuals/154Shamoon.htm

[23]. Emails communications to Asian Centre for Human Rights

[24]. http://www.maldiviandetainees. net/individuals/134Fauzi.htm

[25]. Ibrahim Asif rearrested under 'Terrorism Act', 25 August 2005, available at http://www.haveeru.com.mv/?page=engdetails&id=5565

[26]. Ibrahim Asif Placed Under House Arrest, available at http://www.minivannews.com/news/news.php?id=1458

[27]. Gayoom Attempting to Link Ibrahim Asif to al-Qaeda, available at http://www.minivannews.com/news/news.php?id=1489

[28]. Article 39 of the Constitution of Maldives

[29]. Article 112 (2) of the Constitution of Maldives

[30]. Article 117 of the Constitution of Maldives

[31]. http://minivannews.com/pdf/ CPHRCReport.doc#_Toc137780579

[32]. http://minivannews.com/pdf/ CPHRCReport.doc#_Toc137780579

[33]. Judicial Services Commission a 'whitewash' says MDP, Minivan News, 22 November 2005, available at http://www.minivannews .com/news/news.php?id=1486

[34]. The Report is available at http://www.minivannews.com/Robinson.pdf

[35]. Gayoom Imprisons Four Over 2003 Riots; Jenny Latheef Thought to be Next, Minivan News, 2 October 2005, http://www.minivannews. com/news/news.php?id=1274

[36]. Mohamed Nasheed's Defense Team Considering Withdrawing Legal Representation, Minivan News, 29 October 2005

[37]. Press Release (PR-006/2005) of Human Rights Commission of Maldives, 9 August 2005, available at http://www.hrcm.org.mv/files/42__ PR-006-09%20Aug%202005.pdf

[38]. 2005 Annual Report of Human Rights Commission of Maldives, available at http://www.hrcm.org.mv/ downloads/Annual%20Report%202005%20(%20English).pdf

[39]. "Maldives: The Dark Side of Life" by Asian Centre for Human Rights, May 2005, available at http://www.achrweb.org/reports/Maldives/Maldives0105.pdf

[40]. Hama Jamiyya Holds Events across Male' for Human Rights Day, Minivan News, available at http://www.minivannews.com/news/news.php?id=1556

[41]. Email communication to ACHR, 17 November 2005

[42]. "Maldives: The Dark Side of Life" by Asian Centre for Human Rights, May 2005, available at http://www.achrweb.org/reports/Maldives/Maldives0105.pdf

[43]. US State Department's 2004 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, released on 28 February 2005, available at http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2004/41741.htm

[44]. Four newspapers, four magazines registered, Haveeru, 19 July 2005, available at http://www.haveeru.com.mv/?page=engdetails&id=5231

[45]. Maldives-Annual Report 2006 of Reporters Without Borders, available at http://www.rsf.org/country-50.php3?id_mot=648&Valider=OK

[46]. Arrest of two journalists on the Minivan Daily, 17 October 2005, available at http://www.rsf.org/article .php3?id_article=15311

[47]. Gayoom Moves to Shut Down the Minivan Daily, available at http://www.minivannews.com/news/news.php?id=1233

[48]. Minivan Journalist Shuaib Tells of his Treatment at the Hands of Maldivian Authorities, available at http://www.minivannews.com/news/news.php?id=1263

[49]. Minivan Photojournalist Transferred from Dhoonidhoo to House Arrest; Speaks of His Beatings at Hands of Police, Minivan News, 26 September 2005

[50]. Mohamed Didi Interrogated About Speaking on Minivan Radio, Minivan News, 24 May 2005

[51]. Minivan Journalist Sentenced to Thirty More Days in Detention, Minivan News, 10 November 2005

[52]. Gayyoom desperate to block access to Dhivehi Observer, 22 May 2005, available at http://www.dhivehiobserver.com/localnews/Maldives_localnews_210505.htm

[53]. http://www.rsf.org/article. php3?id_article=13740

[54]. Police using tear gas and extreme force to disperse the crowd near parliament, 1 August 2005, available at http://www.dhivehiobserver.com/breakingnews/Protest_in_Maldivs0108071.htm

[55]. Journalists targeted in crackdown on pro-democracy opposition, 17 August 2005, available at http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=14712

[56]. http://minivannews.com/ pdf/CPHRCReport.doc#_Toc137780579

[57]. Annual Report 2005 of Human Rights Commission of Maldives, available at  http://www.hrcm.org.mv/downloads/Annual%20Report%202005%20(%20English).pdf

[58]. Ibid

[59]. Ibid

[60]. Ibid

[61]. Ibid

[62]. Children Consultation in South Asia, 17 May 2005, CRIN, http://www.crin.org/violence/search/closeup.asp?infoID=5562

[63]. US State Department Country Report 2005, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61708.htm

[64]. World Food Day, Minivian News, 16 October 2006, http://www.minivannews.com/news/news.php?id=2534

[65]. UNICEF, December 2005, http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/maldives_30057.html

[66]. Appeal Against Life Imprisonment for Child Caught with Drugs, Minivan News, 26 April 2005

[67]. Unrest in Addu Atoll, Minivan News, 2 May 2005, http://www.minivannews.com/news/news.php?id=604

[68]. Underage kids beaten by Gayyoom Police, amid Addu Unrest ,Dhivehi Observer, 3 May 2005, http://www.dhivehiobserver.com/articles/kids-beaten-maldives0305052.htm

[69]. Women's situation in the Maldives, available at http://www.onlinewomeninpolitics.org/womensit/mald.pdf

[70]. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/ hrrpt/2005/61708.htm

[71]. The President's 9 June Reform Agenda, 19 March 2006, available at http://www.minivannews. com/news/news.php?id=1912

[72]. Women's situation in the Maldives, available at http://www.onlinewomeninpolitics.org/womensit/mald.pdf

[73]. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/ hrrpt/2005/61708.htm

[74]. http://www.maldiviandetainees. net/individuals/172Ameelia.htm

[75]. http://www.maldiviandetainees. net/individuals/203Aminath_Shareef_Aina.htm

 

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